Rabies vaccine

Rabies vaccine - specific vaccines for the prevention of rabies.
For preparation of rabies vaccines at the Pasteur virus rabies subjected to repeated perenivka (passages) in rabbits. As a result, the disease begins on 6th-7th day (instead of the normal development of the disease on 16-21 day). Further passages of this term already is not shortened, as if fixed. Hence, the virus was called "fixed". Fixed the virus is different from the original that it adapts to the nervous tissue of a rabbit, largely losing virulence to other animals. Brain dead rabbits within 14 days dried on caustic potash, reaching a total loss of virulence, and then prepare him for a suspension for immunization of people bitten affected by rabies in animals (see Rabies).

Rabies vaccine (gr. anti - against, lat. rabies - rabies) - vaccination preparations for protection of human and animal rabies. To treat them already started the condition can. The first rabies vaccine was created by L. Pasteur in 1885 in the USSR rabies vaccine is prepared from brain sheep, rabbits and white rats.
For preparation of rabies vaccines in different countries use different postami fixed virus obtained from the strain Pasteur, who bought some biological differences, but maintained antigenic unity among themselves and with the virus street rabies (see)circulating in nature. In labs A. C. fixed the rabies virus is supported by periodic passages in rabbits (1-2 passage of a month) and stored in a clean or sterile 50% glycerine. The virus can be stored in frozen or dried state.
Koprowski (N. Koprowski) offered to prepare A. V. from chicken embryos infected in the yolk SAC adapted to them and a modified strain of street rabies, Fluri. This strain is harmless to animals in subcutaneous and even intramuscular infection, and creates a more long immunity to the disease than the usual brain vaccine. The vaccine, Fluri widely used for immunization of animals; it is used for vaccination of people. Peck, Powell and Culbertson (F. C. Peck, H. Powell, S. G. Culbertson) proposed rabies vaccine duck embryos, which was adapted fixed the rabies virus. The vaccine, in which the virus is inactivated beta propiolactone, is now used in several countries for preventive vaccination of people.
Types of rabies vaccines. The vaccine Pasteur was a suspension of the spinal cord rabbit containing fixed rabies virus, weakened by drying over caustic within 2-14 days. Hideghegy (A. Hogyes) has simplified this method, proposing to prepare the vaccine by step dilution in physiological solution vaccinated brain suspension (from 1 : 100 to 1 : 10 000) and begin the vaccination of high dilutions. Phillips (J. Phillips) proposed to include vaccinated suspension in glycerol and before vaccination to breed in physiological solution with 0.5% phenol. It allowed to extend the shelf life of vaccines up to 1 month (vaccine Pasteur, Hegyesi could only be used ex tempore). In order to avoid the introduction of the living organism of a fixed virus were created rabies vaccine, partially or completely inactivated by physical and chemical effects.
From A. century, prepared by the methods of physical impacts, in practice currently used vaccine is activated by UV [proposed by Webster and Casals (L. T. Webster, J. Casals)].
Fermi (C. Fermi, 1907) proposed for inactivation A. century phenol. Currently finalizarea A. century Fermi widely used in many countries, including in Scron represents 5% of vaccinated suspension of the brain, prepared containing 1% purified crystalline phenol physiological solution and sustained within 8-10 days at temperature 20-22C. The expiry date of the vaccine when stored at temperature 4 degrees to 6 months. The vaccine, made by Fermi, contains a number of live virus. Its modification is widely used abroad vaccine Sample (D. Semple), in which the virus completely inactivated.
Ramlinga (P. Bemlinger) offered to prepare rabies vaccine by inactivation of fixed virus ether. In the future, the method of production of essential vaccines has been modified. In practice currently used vaccine of Henta (A. Hempt). It contains partially inactivated rabies virus. Prepares from the brain and spinal cord sheep containing fixed the virus; part of the brain kept 96 hour. in the air, and then not less than 45 days in the preservative (33%of glycerin and 1% phenol distilled water). The vaccine is ready vaccinated brain tissue in the ratio 1 : 11 distilled water with 1% of phenol. On modification of Henta-Nikolic (1960), the vaccine is prepared from only the brain sheep and contains completely inactivated virus.
In a number of countries are used A. century, inactivated metal ions, drugs organic mercury, formaldehyde, beta propiolactone and other chemicals.
To increase the shelf life of rabies vaccines and stabilization of their properties Harris and Shackell (D. L. Harris, L. F. Shackell) proposed drying vaccinated brain suspension out of the deep freeze. In the USSR in veterinary practice using dry finalizarea A. V. from brain sheep (C. N. Likhachev, B. N. Nazarov, M. F. Polienko). This vaccine was offered for vaccination of people. Ready vaccine represents 20% of brain suspension containing weakened fixed the virus, from 7.5% sucrose (or 5% glucose) and 0.5% gelatin dried out of the deep freeze in a vacuum. According to the authors, it contains no more than 0,25% of phenol.
Allergens vaccine. All Rabies vaccine prepared from the brain of animals, contain so-called encephalitogenic factor causing some previousily heavy neiroallergicescoe complications. It was found that the brains of newborn animals, this factor is contained in smaller amounts than in adults. Especially little it appeared in the brain newborn rats and mice. Proposed, I.e. Light-Moldovan and I. A. Shumeikina vaccine from the brain of a newborn rats used in medical practice. It is prepared according to the method of Fermi and represents 5% of vaccinated suspension brain suckers white rats (12 days) physiological solution with 0.5% phenol. The authors also proposed to prepare allergens rabies vaccine in dry form. According to preliminary data, no case of postvaccinal neuroparalytic complications in the application of this vaccine is not registered.
Are also attempts to release from entsefalicheskogo factor brain of adult animals by chemical means or cook A. century in tissue culture.
Assessment of the quality of the vaccine. All manufactured rabies vaccine are required monitoring for sterility, safety, by the content of a live virus and immunogenicity. Dry A. C. additionally controlled for residual moisture and solubility, and non allergic - no encephalitogenic. According to world statistics, a significant difference regarding the effectiveness of different types A. century is not observed. Rabies vaccination significantly reduce mortality from hydrophobia.