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Over the last twenty years the Arsenal of medical tools was enriched with new powerful biological medicines - antibiotics, the use of which opened a new era in the history of medicine.
What does the word of antibiotics and any drug substances belong to him? In translation from Greek "anti" means "against," and "BIOS" - "life", i.e. antibiotics are substances that act against life (meaning, of course, against microbial life).
Already in the first decades after the discovery of microbes, it became known that they are not indifferent towards each other. In the struggle for the existence of microbes in the process of natural selection have developed various means of protection and attack. Scientists often observed that some species of microbes prevent the reproduction of others. This phenomenon has received the name of antagonism.
At the dawn of development of Microbiology Louis Pasteur, and then Ilya Ilyich Mechnikov showed that the struggle between different types of microbes can be used in medicine.
In 1877 Pasteur and Joubert found that some microbes delay the growth of pathogens of anthrax. In vitro culture Sibirgazbank sticks were destroyed due to the growth of other bacteria trapped in a test tube from the environment. "Life prevents life," wrote Pasteur.
The great Russian scientist I. I. Mechnikov pointed out that Darwin's idea of struggle for existence, what is happening in the world of animals can be applied to microbes and that in the process of fighting each other, they produce specific substances as a form of defence and attack.
Metchnikov looked for "beneficent bacteria that protect us from harmful", and recommended the use of lactic acid bacteria to fight putrefactive bacteria occupying the human gut, and, according to the scientist, causing the poisoning of the body and cause premature aging. The theory of premature old age turned out to be wrong. However, their experiences I. I. Mechnikov showed the role of microbes-antagonists in the conditions of the human body.
Interesting history of discovery of penicillin.
Yet in the last century, in 1870-1871 years, the famous Russian scientist Century A. Manassein reported that mould "green Kistelek" has the ability to delay the growth of microbes. C. A. Manassein, which made the crops of green mold on nutrient environment, noted that in this environment, "never developed bacteria" Even more surprising was the fact that mold in almond oil, used in large dermatologist A. G. Polutemnoy for flow of the Russian Academy of Sciences, led quickly to cleanse wounds from microbes and to heal the affected areas (1872).
However, at that time the level of development of science did not allow to complete the started research and these interesting discoveries have been unjustly forgotten.
In 1928, to some extent, casual observation English scientist Alexander Fleming showed that green mold destroys microbes. A. Fleming grew pyogenic microbes - Staphylococcus on firm nutrient medium in the special glass tubes called Petri dishes. From time to time, the crops were reviewed. This Cup was opened and inevitably suffered from pollution by various microorganisms that fall from the air. On one of them accidentally grew green mold. When researching this Cup scientists found that the colony Staphylococcus, which was located next to a large colony of mold, became very clear. Fleming wrote: "what was a well-grown staphylococcal colony, became a shadow of itself".
Fleming interested in this amazing phenomenon. He raised mold broth, and the resulting leachate broth, freed from mold, called penicillin (as mold was called Penicillium). Liquid penicillin had the amazing properties. In contact with germs he was detained their growth. However, if the storage of the liquid penicillin very quickly destroyed. It was necessary to find ways to extract and concentrate.
Fleming found that penicillin selectively. He is active against some species of bacteria, gram-positive bacteria and shall not delay the growth of so-called gram-negative microbes. The crude liquid medication Fleming proposed to apply in a laboratory.