Antifreeze

Antifreeze is a liquid, not freezing at low temperatures (from 0 degrees to -75 degrees), used for engine cooling. As antifreeze used aqueous solutions of ethylene glycol, glycerin, alcohol.
The antifreeze poisoning occur mainly if swallowed fluid; it penetrates the skin and inhalation of vapours antifreeze poisoning are rare. The most toxic etilenglikolem antifreeze. For a person minimal toxic dose antifreeze is 50 ml, death - from 100 to 300 ml
In case of poisoning are mainly affected the Central nervous system, kidneys and liver; first, the influence of the antifreeze (agitation, anesthesia, paralysis) - the brainstorming phase, later dominated by the action of the products of its transformation (oxalic acid, glycolic aldehyde, glioksalja and glycolic acid) with the most intensive kidney and liver - gepatomegalia phase.
Specific antidote therapy poisoning antifreeze not. First aid - washing stomach, the bloodletting, followed by blood transfusion, intravenous infusion of a solution of glucose, excessive drinking, heart drugs, inhalation of oxygen, heat.
Prevention. The use of glycol in antifreezes are regulated by special instructions and rules. It is necessary to acquaint the workers with the danger of taking antifreeze inside, to establish control over its storage and expenditure, the use of warning labels; to make antifreeze repulsive odor, add substances that cause immediate vomiting after taking antifreeze inside.
Also used personal protective mucous membranes of eyes and an open surface of the skin from contact with antifreeze (goggles, gloves).

Antifreeze (eng. antifreeze, from the Greek. anti - against and English. freeze - freeze)- liquid, not freezing at temperatures below zero air. Used for charging of the refrigeration systems of automobile and tractor engines and other facilities when working in cold conditions. The composition of antifreezes different, more often it aqueous solutions of ethylene glycol or of spirits (including methanol), the number of salts, in some cases - light oil products.
Etilenglikolem antifreeze, used more often, the most toxic. Produce antifreeze two types - "65" and "40" with the freezing temperature not higher, respectively -65 degrees and not above 40C. Slightly turbid liquid orange or yellow depending on the variety. Famous American antifreeze - Preston, German antifreeze - glysantin. Major active principle is ethylene glycol with narcotic properties. In the process of transformation in the body forms a oxalic acid; large quantity of crystals of calcium oxalate fills the tubules of the kidneys, causing anuria. Lethal to humans when it is eaten 100 ml of anti-freeze.
The clinical picture of poisoning depends mainly on the quantity of received antifreeze. In severe dominate the symptoms of Central nervous system (cerebral form). Neuro-psychic changes similar to those observed under the effect of a drug in a large dose of excitement, depression, deep coma. These symptoms join vomiting, sometimes bloody, sharp pain in podlojecna area, oliguria, leukocytosis, the phenomena of the beginning of pulmonary edema. Death occurs during the first 1-2 days with symptoms of respiratory failure. In agonistic state - sharp cyanosis of the face, convulsions, vomiting, shortness of breath. In light of elderly patients are detected chronic swelling, hemorrhage and extensive hemorrhage; in the brain - minor bleeding in the kidney - sharp plethora of glomeruli in the renal tubules - crystals of calcium oxalate.
If the antifreeze poisoning develops mainly affecting kidneys (renal form), after the initial effects of intoxication symptoms of growing uremic coma: dizziness, hematuria, anuria, seizures and convulsions; 10-12 day, sometimes 3 weeks after the patient dies. In these cases, kidney sharply increased, the epithelium of convoluted and partially direct tubules gidropaticheskim reborn, visible crystals of calcium oxalate; front lungs emphysematous, rear sealed, dark red colour, with the cut - foamy liquid; the brain - the phenomenon of stasis, ring-shaped hemorrhages; stomach - many of erosions and small hemorrhages. With a light poisoning of this form on the 3-5th day phenomenon irritation of the kidneys subside and may come recovery. In cases of very light poisoning marked only the symptoms of narcotic and short-term euphoria.
Treatment. First aid - washing stomach, mechanized enema, rest, heat, oxygen, re-blood-letting Hundreds of 200 to 400 ml). Then a generous introduction of alkali (under the skin 500-1000 ml 3-4% soda solution or per os 2 g of baking soda every hour) to slightly alkaline reaction urine, magnesium sulfate intramuscularly or intravenously (5 ml 25% aqueous solution), glucose (20-40 ml of 25-40% solution intravenously). Heart funds.
The definition of antifreeze in the contents of the stomach is made by the receipt of calcium oxalate on the addition of chloride calcium to the stretch of the samples taken.