Antigenicity tumors

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When immunodiagnostics tumors often apply laboratory methods based on the use of lymphokines that reflects the response of lymphocytes to a particular antigen. One of the initial properties of polymorphonuclear leukocytes and macrophages is their ability to stick to a foreign object (cell adhesion). If in the same period of time lymphocytes interact with the known antigen in the surrounding space do chemoattractant - the substances promoting to move stuck cells. Specific products of T-lymphocytes provide "the effect of otlipanie" (or suppression adhesion), which is easy to register under ordinary light microscope.
This test, usually called the reaction suppression adhesion of leukocytes, it is not difficult to perform even in specialized laboratories. The object of study is the fraction of blood leukocytes, which is added in equal ratio of water-salt extract from the crushed tumors and normal tissues. The result is recorded as the difference stuck cells in the presence of antigen or without it. To identify blocking effect of serum same person, it is added to the system "leukocytes + antigen". If there are blocking factors in blood serum positive response (effect of otlipanie" in the presence of antigen) again becomes negative.
This reaction is a good method for the determination of cell-mediated immunity in case of cancer, it becomes positive in the early stages of the disease; then detects and blocks the effect of autologous serum. According to our data, the test is positive in 85-90% of cancer patients. It is noteworthy that cross-positive reaction occurs and the introduction of her tumor antigen, and extract from the tissues early (before 12 to 16 weeks) of the embryo. Marked and organosilicate sensitization: white blood cells of a patient with lung cancer gave a positive response to the antigen light of the fetus, and the white cells of the patient with cancer of the colon with antigen derived from the guts of the fetus 13-19 weeks of age.
The response becomes positive in the presence of leukocyte suspension only 3-5% immune to tumor antigen in lymphocytes. It was found that meets the cell is the T-helpers and the emitted in the presence of antigen specific factors change receptors on the membrane of neutrophils and macrophages (participation of these cells in response to the tumor studied enough yet). It is obvious that tumor growth is accompanied by the recognition of tumor antigens that, in turn, can be accompanied by the formation of T-killers, but may not lead to such an outcome. With all that these antigens do not necessarily cause rejection reactions tumors, they may have clinical value as markers of disease, such as cancer-embryonalen antigen. And the commonality of these tumor-associated molecules with antigens of the early embryo is important for development of methods of cancer immunotherapy.
Some researchers now believe that all cancer cells regardless of histological structure, degree of differentiation, the size of the tumor, antigenic Constitution media tumors are on their surface a common antigen protein nature with a low molecular weight. This antigen is not on healthy cells. Perhaps it was this antigen sencibilisiruet recognize lymphocytes, then providing the production factors, the vast adhesion of leukocytes.