Antiseptics

The antiseptic is a method of preventing infection of wounds and treatment of infected wounds, various purulent processes by affecting contained in the wound or tissues pathogenic microbes. The antiseptic is carried out mainly by means of chemical and biological means having the ability to delay reproduction of microbes (bacteriostatic action) and kill them (bactericidal effect).
Depending on a way of application of antiseptics there are three types of antiseptics: local - introduction of antiseptic substances directly into the wound or purulent foci; deep - injection antiseptic solution in the tissue near the site of infection (wounds, carbuncle , and so on); General - saturation of the body antiseptic (proteobacterium) drug.
Local antiseptic with any significant wounds and spilled purulent processes are not reliable primarily because all chemical antiseptics, especially the most active, harmful influence on human tissues and their application in high concentrations dangerous; special caution must be used in local antiseptic in young children (high sensitivity to chemical antiseptical). The effect of weak solutions of antiseptic tanks ineffective. Biological plant - antibiotics - little effect on the fabric, but local use them in a deep wound that contains the necrotic tissue, blood clots, pus, not efficient enough.
Deep antiseptic carried out exclusively by antibiotics mainly during the operation, and sometimes when conservative treatment - for example, in some cases, tendon felon, carbuncle person, etc.
In General antiseptic main means are antibiotics that are administered intravenously, intramuscularly (penicillin, streptomycin) or inside (tetracyclines , and others) usually in combination with sulfa drugs (norsulfazol, etazol , and others). In surgery General antiseptic allowed us to achieve great success in the treatment of infections, sepsis (see). Most often it is used in addition to surgery.
Antiseptic means of plant origin - volatile - up to the present time in surgery application not found.

Antiseptic (from the Greek. anti - against and septikos putrid, putrefied; synonym antiseptic method is a method of treatment of bacterial contaminated and infected wounds, bursal, anaerobic and putrefactive processes by combating infectious agents that have penetrated into the wound or tissue. There are antiseptic chemical through bactericidal drugs - antiseptics (see), and A. physical, based on the use of materials, vigorously sucking wound with it contained bacteria and their toxins. In surgery both antiseptics are usually used in combination.
There are three methods of chemical A.: local antiseptics - introduction of antibacterial drugs in the cavity wounds opened abscess, etc; deep A. - infiltration antiseptic solution of the tissues surrounding the source of infection; and "large sterilizing therapy" (therapia sterilisans magna) - saturation of the whole organism antiseptic. Antibacterial effect antiseptic preparation, put in the wound, always unreliable. He sharply reduced due to insufficient contact bactericidal substances with microbes, prisoners, for example, blood clots, especially penetrated into the thickness of the tissue. Chemical antiseptics negative effect on tissue that restricts or concentration applied antiseptic wound or duration of exposure. Energetic local application of antiseptics may sharply worsen the course of the wound process. Some surgeons prefer to be limited by means of physical A., considering that chemical antiseptics does more harm than good.
Application of local A. shown for wounds obviously containing flora (random and especially military), and when developed infectious process. But in that and in other case the antiseptic is only of secondary importance and decisive preventive or curative role surgery - primary (preventive) or secondary surgical treatment of wounds, opening an abscess, phlegmon, etc., Only when the outdoor injury (superficial cuts, scratches, etc.) A. may be adequate means of preventing infection. For large wounds, it is often only delays the transition bacterial contamination of a wound infection.
The same inability to create in the tissues or in the patient's blood bactericidal or at least bacteriostatic concentration antibacterial drug for a long time did ineffective attempts deep A. (vucina, triatlonom, rivanol). "Big sterilizing therapy" (mainly in sepsis) via infusion urotropine, salvarsan, drugs colloidal silver also did not give significant results. Only with the introduction of sulfonamides and especially antibiotics became possible wider and successful implementation of the principle of "big sterilizing treatment, called chemotherapy. Has been very effective and deep antiseptic with penicillin. However, under these conditions, A. remains additional treatment and, as a rule, can not replace shown surgical intervention. As for prophylaxis of wound infections, A. generally loses value when the application is purely preventive method - upgrades (see) can be excluded the possibility of making microflora in the wound. Cm. also the wounds, the wounds.