Antiseptic

Antiseptic (antiseptics) - the substances destroying microorganisms or delaying their reproduction or development.
Antiseptics in varying degrees, active against all organisms, that is, unlike chemotherapy drugs, do not have the selective action. Action antiseptic funds resulting from delayed development or multiplication of microorganisms, called bacteriostatic, to their death - bactericidal. The latter effect may be called disinfectant. Some antiseptic funds can have as bacteriostatic and bactericidal action that depends on their concentration and duration of validity, sensitivity to them microorganisms, temperature, presence of organic substances in the environment (GNO, blood weaken the effect of a range of antiseptics). Antiseptic funds are very different in nature. There are following their group. I. Halides: antivermin, iodine, pantocidum, chloramine B. II. Oxidizing substances: potassium permanganate, hydrogen peroxide. III. Acid: benzoic acid, boric, salicylic. IV. Alkali: bikarmint. V. Compounds heavy metals: drugs mercury, silver, aluminum, lead, bismuth (kseroforma), copper, zinc. VI. Alcohols (ethanol, and others). VII. Aldehydes: hexamethylenetetramine, Caltex, Lizoform, formaldehyde. VIII. Phenols: benzonate, Lysol, resorcinol, tricresol, fenilsalitsilat, phenol. IX. Tar, tar, oil refining products, mineral oils, synthetic balsam, drugs sulfur (albital, Vinylinum, tar, the Ichthyol, oil, refined naphthalene, polimeros, sullen, tzigarol). X. Dyes: brilliant green, methylene blue, flavkred, ethacridine. XI. Derivative nitrofurana: the furatsilina. XII. Derivative 8-oxyhalide: hinozol. XIII. Surface-active agents or detergents: DIACID. As antiseptics used antibiotics for topical use (gramicidin) and volatile.
To characterize the antimicrobial activity of antiseptics are phenol coefficient that shows what the power of antimicrobial action of the tool in comparison with phenol.
Antiseptics are used topically in the treatment of infected and long-term healing wounds and ulcers, bedsores, abscess, phlegmon, mastitis, injuries to joints, piodermii, diseases of the mucous membranes, for irrigation of the bladder, urethra, and also for disinfection of premises, clothes, items of care, hand surgery, instruments, decontamination of effluents. For the treatment of common infections antiseptic means, as a rule, do not apply.
Contraindications to the use, and also the description of some antiseptic funds - see the article by name drugs [for example, Potassium permanganate, Mercury (drugs) and others].

Antiseptic - antimicrobial agents used for local action in the treatment of purulent inflammatory and septic processes (positive and long-term healing wounds and ulcers, bedsores, abscess, phlegmon, mastitis, injuries to joints, piodermii, diseases of mucous membranes), and also for disinfection of premises, linen and underwear, patient-care items, hand surgery, instruments, decontamination of effluents. For the treatment of common infections these substances, as a rule, do not apply.
Antiseptics are germinations, and in high concentrations have a germicidal effect. So some antiseptics can be used as disinfectants (see). In addition, antiseptics are used for conservation of medicinal products and food products. Antimicrobial activity of antiseptics Express using phenol coefficient - relations bactericidal concentration of phenol to bactericidal concentrations of antiseptics. The degree of effectiveness of antiseptics depends on several conditions: sensitivity to the microorganism, concentrations of antiseptics, solvent, in which it is used, temperature, time of influence of the drug. Many antiseptics in more or less lose activity in the presence of proteins, therefore, they should be used only after cleansing infected surfaces of exudate. A. S. operate on all types of bacteria and other microorganisms, without selectivity, inherent chemotherapeutic agents. Many antiseptics can damage living cells of the host. Consequently, the assessment of antiseptics certainly includes the determination of their toxicity to humans and animals with "toxicity index" - the relationship between the minimum concentration of the drug that is causing the death of test microorganism within 10 minutes, and the maximum concentration of the same drug, not overwhelming growth of tissue culture chicken embryo. For medical practice greatest value have A. S. that under other equal conditions, have the least toxicity.


Antiseptics are diverse in nature. They can be divided into the following groups. I. Halides: gaseous chlorine, chloride lime, chloramines, pantocidum, antivermin, iodine, iodoform. II. Oxidizing agents include hydrogen peroxide, potassium permanganate, vertoletov salt (potassium Chornovitsky). III. Acid: sulphuric, chromium, boron, acetic acid, trichloroacetic, undecylenoyl, benzoicum, salicylic, almond and some other IV. Alkali: calcium oxide, ammonia, soda, borax. V. Compounds heavy metals: 1) mercury; 2) silver; 3) aluminum - primary aluminum acetate (liquid Burova), alum; 4) lead - main acetate lead (lead water); 5) bismuth - kseroforma, dermatol, the main bismuth nitrate; 6) copper - copper sulfate, citrate copper; 7) zinc - zinc sulfate, zinc oxide. VI. Alcohols: ethanol, isopropyl, trichlorobutene, some glycols. VII. Aldehydes formaldehyde, hexamethylenetetramine (hexamine). VIII. Phenols, phenol, or carbolic acid, cresol, Kremlin, perchlorbenzol, pentachlorophenol, hexachlorophene, resorcinol, thymol, tricresol, fenilsalitsilat (salol), bezonata. IX. Products dry distillation of organic materials: different pitch and tar, Ichthyol, Albiol. X. Dyes: brilliant green, rivanol, triplewin, methylene blue and gentian violet. XI. Derivative nitrofurana: furatsilina, furadonin, furazolidon. XII. Derivative 8-oksihinolina: hinozol, Atran. XIII. Surface active substances, or detergents. There are cationic, anionic and nonionic detergents. Most activity have cationic detergents (e.g. cetilpiridinium). XIV. Antibiotics (see): gramicidin, neomycin, microzide, usnic acid. XV. Volatile (see): garlic, onion, Hypericum, Burnet, eucalyptus and other
The mechanism of action of antiseptics is different and is determined by their chemical and physical-chemical properties. Antimicrobial action of acids, alkalis and salts depends on the degree of dissociation: the stronger dissociates the connection, the more of his activity. Alkali hydrolyzing proteins, Amiraut fats, break down carbohydrates microbial cells. The effect of salts explained by the change of osmotic pressure and violation of the permeability of cell membranes. With changes in the permeability of the bacterial membranes associated action and antiseptics that lower the surface tension (Soaps, detergents). The effect of salts of heavy metals because of their ability to bind sulfhydryl groups of substances bacterial cells. Antiseptic action of formaldehyde due to its ability denaturing proteins. Connection of a group of phenol have the properties of detergents and able denaturing proteins. Oxidants will cause the death of microbial cells from oxidation of its component parts. The mechanism of action of chlorine and chlorine-containing compounds is associated with the formation of hypochlorous acid (NSU), which acts as an oxidant, allocating oxygen, and as a means glorieuse amino - and aminogroup proteins and other substances that are part of microorganisms. The antimicrobial effect of the dye is connected with their property to selectively respond to certain acidic or basic groups of substances bacterial cells with the formation of insoluble slaboionizovannoi complexes. The antimicrobial effect of derivatives nitrofurana due to the presence in their molecule aromatic nitro-groups. Antiseptics inhibit the activity of many bacterial enzymes. For example, bactericidal activity of antiseptics is closely linked to their ability to oppress davidraso activity of bacteria. Under the influence of antiseptics stops the process of cell division and come morphological changes involving violation of the cell structure. Individual A. S. - see related articles.