Antibodies against cancer

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If to take the view that the tumor does not have any specific proteins that differ from their own body, or undergo only antigenic simplification (such hypothesis was first launched, green 1954), antibodies to them doesn't have.
However, even in the 30-ies were repeatedly shown that in the blood of cancer patients are circulating antibodies to tumor and normal tissues.
In model experiments it was shown that these antibodies can play a different biological role. In some cases they damage together with the complement of the tumor cells, while in others it protects tumor cells from the subsequent political action of lymphocytes. An example of this is a well-known phenomenon enhance the growth of tumors using passive entered humoral antibodies. In accordance with the differences antibodies known as cytotoxic or reinforcing.
For obvious reasons it is cytotoxic antibodies, permanently violates the metabolism of cells, historically became the first weapon of immunity, which the researchers tried to use in the fight against cancer. In 1925 the French bacteriologist, Ramon installed capacity of some substances nonspecific by stimulating the body's antibodies and proposed the concept of "adjuvants" (helpers, amplifiers). Although then were offered hundreds of different adjuvants inorganic, plant and bacterial origin, in the experiment of the most frequently used water-oil emulsion containing killed tubercle bacilli - so-called full beta-blockers, PAF. It slows down the absorption together with him, introduced antigen and splitting it up to individual molecules, provides a longer their contact with circulating lymphocytes. However, lipoproteins, included in the PAF and many other adjuvants, stimulate the production of different antibodies, including reinforcing the growth of tumors. Best adjuvants for human immune system are precipitates aluminium and calcium, but their rational combination with weak antigens tumors remains insufficiently studied.
Another way stimulate humoral immunity based on accelerating the maturation predecessors B-lymphocytes. If the T-dependent lymphocyte stimulator their maturing is timozin, artificially obtained by the fractionation of extracts glue., thymus, for B lymphocytes such product is boursin. This product was made from the cells of Bursa - posterior sewer Chicks, it activates B-cells of birds and mammals and has no effect on T-lymphocytes. Boursin was B-cell hormone, protein which mainly was lysine, gistidin and acid glycine. Recently managed synthetic means to obtain such a Tripeptide, also emphasizing the functional activity of B-lymphocytes. However, the introduction of it to animals with tumors strengthened the functions of antibody-producing cells in relation to the various antigens and deprived biological response required specificity.
A powerful impetus immunological attack on cancer was the discovery, made in 1975 at the University of Cambridge J.. Koller and C. Milstein. These authors were able to achieve a fusion of two cells of the immune B-lymphocytes and tumor cells of bone marrow - myeloma in a single hybrid, producing antibody narrow specificity. In the body synthesis of one of immunoglobulin is short, it changes the production of antibodies to another class. In addition, the body always produces a mixture of different antibodies, especially if the source of antigen served as the cell membrane with a rich set of different proteins. Cell-a hybrid of a tumor and lymphocyte outside the body produces antibodies that specificity, which emerged in response to immunization purified antigen. The antibody is, therefore, clear reagent for "recognition" of this antigen in any protein shake. All daughter cells of this hybrid is a single clone of producing identical antibodies, so they are called monoclonal.