Antibodies against cancer

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As lymphocyte immune usually use the cell of the spleen of mice received an injection of a given antigen. Lymphocytes have a relatively short life and secrete antibody long. Hybrids inherit from tumor cells property to the infinite multiplication, so the production of antibodies uninterrupted. Multiplied clone hybrids called hybridomas; ideal camera for its conservation is the abdominal cavity syngeneic animal. In this given hybridoma not only mice and human cells.
Monoclonal antibodies received after immunization of mice with cells of human cancers, interact selectively e fabrics of bowel cancer, lung, breast, bone or soft tissue sarcoma, malignant melanoma. These antibodies can be directed against specific antigens on the membranes of cancer cells or products produced by the tumor (e.g. cancer-fetal protein). Monoclonal antibodies against B-cell leukemia recognize the unique patterns in the variable part of antibodies on the surface of lymphocytes of patients. This allowed to apply such antibodies for the culling of sick cells and achieve in some cases long-term remission in patients with leukemia.
Of special interest are the possibilities of a combination of monoclonal anti-tumor antibodies with cytotoxic chemical or radioisotope substances. In this cases antibodies are reliable guides of toxic products only diseased cells, and different monoclonal antibodies can address toxins to the surface molecules of cell membranes and in the cytoplasm of cancer cells. When intraarterial the introduction of a mixture of antibodies with radioactive isotopes last selectively nakalyaetsya in the lesion, such as metastases in the liver or lungs after surgical removal of the primary tumor. Still with the purpose used isotopes of iodine, but it is possible to think that the Elements copper or yttrium will be even more effective.
Early in the century disciple of the famous Robert Koch, Youll Ehrlich put forward the idea of b that antibodies as a "magic bullet" is able to deliver in certain cells chemically attached to them toxins. Monoclonal antibodies, which are addressed not only to specific cells, but also to their specific molecules, were in this respect is an essential tool. A set of antibodies to the elements of bowel cancer or melanoma associated with 98% of the corresponding cells of the tumor. The chemotherapy drugs that has self-injected into the body represented by total toxicity (e.g. metotrexat or adriamycin), when the electoral delivering them into the intracellular space tumor not harm normal cells, but interrupt the division patients.
The same Ehrlich had detrimental to animal cells poison plant origin - the ricin. The toxin is composed of two polypeptide chains - a and b, the first of which easily penetrate the cell and suppresses the synthesis of ribosomal proteins. When you activate a virus or somatic oncogenes this chain of ricin could suspend malignizatiou, but introductions solid ricin is dangerous for life. Conjugate And-chain ricin with monoclonal anti-tumor antibodies is relatively safe for healthy cells the immunotoxin. Even in small doses (10-100 molecules on the cell) it has a high specific cytotoxicity (1000 times greater than metotrexat) in relation to tumor cells, in particular with melanoma. Also studied the possibility of delivery in tumor tissue of diphtheria toxin, one molecule which kills the cancer cells.