Anuria

Anuria is a painful condition in which the kidneys do not excrete urine or she does not come from the kidneys to the bladder; characterized by the absence of urine in the bladder. The following types of anuria.
1. Arsenalna anuria is rare; common in newborns with aplasia of the kidneys in adults in the mistaken deletion of a single kidney.
2. Prerenalnaya anuria develops at sharp disturbance of blood supply to the kidneys as a result of thrombosis or embolism renal vascular, massive blood loss, severe disorders of blood circulation in cardiovascular insufficiency and shock.
3. Renal anuria (secretory, true) occurs when bilateral off excretory functions of the kidneys in the diffuse pathological processes in renal tissue (acute glomerulonephritis, pyelonephritis, eclampsia, polycystic kidney disease, a heart attack, kidney, acute necrotizing tubular principally the result of acute poisoning and other).
4. Subramania anuria (excretory, false, obturator) is the result of various kinds of obstacles in the course of the ureter (the stones, tumors).
5. Reflex anuria develops as a result of different, mainly pain, irritation, outgoing from the urinary tract or other organs. In the basis of reflex anuria lies sharp spasm bringing arterioles kidneys.
Anuria is a terrible symptom of a number of diseases of the urinary system. Urination stops suddenly or after colicky or dull aching pain in the lower back. In the clinical course of anuria distinguish two periods: endurance and intoxication. The period endurance (lasting from 2 to 5 days) is characterized by the absence of urine in General good condition of the patient. In the period of intoxication (lasting 10 to 12 days) gradually increases intoxication of an organism products of an exchange, develops uremia (increased thirst, loss of appetite, nausea, vomiting, drowsiness, headache, dry language), ending with the death of a patient in a coma.
Anuria should be distinguished from the delay urination (see Isoria), in which above the pubic area percutere determined dullness, and if the catheter in the bladder is the large quantity of urine. When anuria the bladder is always empty. To determine the nature of anuria great importance history, overview snapshot of the urinary system, cystoscopy with the catheterization of the ureter.
Treatment anuria is to eliminate its causes: when sublinalmi anuria shown catheterization of the ureter, leaving a permanent catheter for 1-2 nights, surgical treatment is the removal of stone or nephrostomy (see). When reflex anuria - lumbar novocaine blockade, warm baths, diathermy the lumbar region.
At renal anuria shows the use of hemodialysis or peritoneal dialysis (see).
First aid for anuria provides for the elimination of spasm of the pelvis and ureters and warm baths, the introduction into the skin of 1 ml of 0.1% solution of atropine, subcutaneously or intravenously way izotoniceski solution of sodium chloride and 5% solution of glucose is not more than 1.5 liters per day. If this therapy is not effective for a period of 6-12 hours, the patient should be hospitalized in the urological hospital to clarify the nature of anuria and treatment.

Anuria (anuria; from the Greek. negative consoles'an and uron - urine) - complete cessation of urine output. There are several types of anuria.
1. Arsenalna anuria is observed among newborns with congenital aplasia kidney, and in adults with erroneous deletion of a single kidney.
2. Prerenalnaya anuria occurs due to compression or break renal vascular tumors, and also as a result of thrombosis and embolism renal arteries. This usually refers and A., due to massive blood loss, severe disorders of blood circulation in cardiovascular insufficiency and shock, excessive fluid loss at diarrheas, uncontrollable vomiting, massive edema, ascites, etc. If such A. any kidney or urinary tract initially not affected, it is based on extrarenally factors (drop in blood pressure, decrease in renal blood flow, the depletion of blood, water, and so on), in connection with what some authors call this type of violations mocheotdelenia extrarenally A.
3. Renal (true) anuria is a consequence of the bilateral off actually excretory functions of the kidneys and develops as a result of diffuse pathological processes in renal tissue (glomerulonephritis, pyelonephritis, polycystosis, arteriolosclerosis kidney poisoning sublimate, cantharidin, salts of lead and sulfonamides, kidney decay products of tissue with a massive razmesheniya).
4. Subramania (false) anuria associated with the emergence of obstacles to the flow of urine from the kidney due to compression of the ureter tumor, clogging them with stones, etc., In connection with substantial increase of vnutripuzarnogo pressure caused urinary retention, its secretion soon stopped, and then develop lesions of the renal tissue.
5. Reflex A. arises as a result of severe trauma (for example, in some people, the survivors of the earthquake), with hysterical reactions, severe pain irritation as a result of injury, severe surgery, particularly abdominal, birovni of the urethra, kamnedrobilniy, due to reflex on healthy kidney from a patient of the kidney (the so-called Reno-renal reflex), and so on reflex anuria leading role played by a sharp spasm bringing arterioles kidneys, and admission into the blood significant amounts of antidiuretic hormone glands.
Often there are mixed forms A. for Example anuria, developing severe wounds (the so-called traumatic A.), due to a combination of reflex effects on renal vessels, violations of the total and renal blood flow due to shock and lesions of the renal parenchyma. Complex pathogenesis and has anuria, growing in shock caused by transfusion of blood incompatible.
Termination of allocation of urine for two days and more leads to autointoxication body accumulate in the blood of products of metabolism and development of uremia (see).
Treatment A. first of all is to eliminate its causes. In inefficiency or inability to use the measures aimed at the recovery of urination, illustrates the use of hemodialysis or peritoneal dialysis, the replacement excretory kidney function [see Kidneys (acute renal failure)].