Apraxia

Apraxia - violation purposeful movements in the absence of paralysis of the muscles. Comes with the defeat of the left parietal lobe of the brain for the right-handed (hemorrhage, brain tumors, softening of the brain, encephalitides , and others). If apraxia patients often cannot even perform simple actions: to fasten a button or tie a shoelace, to strike a match, to show how wind the watch as brushing their hair, and so on, you Must treat the underlying disease.

Apraxia (apraxia; from the Greek. negative prefix a - and praxis - action) - violation of purposeful actions. The concept of apraxia excluded disorders elementary components respective functions (paralysis, paresis, hyperkinesia). Violations in apraxia not stipulate any disorder movements engaged in the action, nor disorder sensitivity, nor the presence of sensory aphasia (see), which impedes the understanding of the tasks or mental disease. If apraxia, as with aphasia are syndromes characterized by the dissociation of functions, with the most stable are the functions of repetition and less spontaneous (arbitrary). As with aphasia, if apraxia frequent perseverancia, stereotipi and phenomena similar to echolalia, and violations similar to parapanema as a literal and verbal.
Research methodology. 1. Imitation of movements. 2. Easy steps in order to stand up, sit down, close your eyes and so on, 3. Manipulation with objects: for example, the patient was given a needle, thread and button and asked to threading a needle and sew a button; given and more complex multicomponent instructions. 4. Manipulation with imaginary subjects: the patient, not having the respective subjects, must show how eating soup, cut meat, shooting from a gun, etc., 5. Manipulations with their own body parts: put the right hand on his left cheek, etc., 6. Facial procedure: the patient must make a gesture of greeting, wag your finger, etc.,
Basically there are three syndromes: ideational apraxia, motor and constructive.
Ideational apraxia. By themselves, partial actions included in the composition of targeted actions, correct, but violated their sequence, or the action itself is correct, is sent to the wrong goal. It is often observed substitution movements, very similar to verbal parapanema, and no distortion patterns of movements similar to a literal profesijai. Ideational apraxia is always two-way. A very characteristic feature - saving actions by imitation.
Motor apraxia is different from the ideational violation of action not only spontaneous, but by imitation, but also by the fact that when the motor A. violation may be limited to one half of the body, even one paw or only the facial muscles (oral A.).
Constructive apraxia (or rather practise) is characterized by a violation of the functions of direction as in the actions pane, where it leads to impossibility of construction of the whole of the parts, and in the field of recognition. The patient may not using the pattern-runner matches a particular pattern (Fig. 1)can not arrange the letters in a proper manner (Fig. 2), the Pentagon is torn them when drawing into two parts, with the image of a cone ends of the triangle are located inside the circle of reason (Fig. 3).
Topic diagnostic value syndromes apraxia. In most cases, when motor apraxia the lesion is found in nadrevani gyrus (box 40) left hemisphere, while constructive apraxia - in angle (box 39). Especially characterized by the emergence A. confined just to the left limb, with the defeat of the corpus callosum. When ideational A. as with transcortical forms
of aphasia, with which it has much in common, it is found diffuse lesions of the brain cortex (common arteriosclerotic process, and so on), with the right focus is localized in the left hemisphere, left-handers in the right. Cm. also Agnosia.

Fig. 1. The folding of the matches of the figures presented in the sample (left - samples, right - execution).
Fig. 2. Compilation of words from individual letters.
Fig. 3. The patient draws on the job cone (left), cylinder (middle), and the Pentagon (right).