Pharmacy

Pharmacy is an institution of health, engaged in manufacturing and selling medicines by the recipes of doctors without prescription (manual sale), objects of sanitation and hygiene, nursing, disinfectants, bandages, spectacles optics, surgical instruments, mineral waters and other medical goods. Pharmacy conducts sanitary-educational work and distributes popular information about drugs among the population.
In rural areas, the pharmacy is also engaged in the harvesting of medicinal plants. Work pharmacies regulated by the regulations approved by the Ministry of health of the USSR.
There are two types pharmacies: 1) self-supporting, or open, pharmacies, producing holiday medicinal preparations on recipes and by manually sale, manufacture of medicines (prescription) and engaged vacation various medical products to all citizens; in these pharmacies in urgent cases, it is first medical aid; 2) pharmacies medical institutions, or closed, to make prescription drugs doctors for patients in this hospital, and providing these institutions with all kinds of medical assets. If hospitals can also be arranged sale of medicines to patients through the pharmacy stands (kiosks).
Pharmacies are located in separate premises, the amount of which depends on volume of work. Pharmacy with a big volume of works have a waiting-room (waiting room), prescription assistance, material, packing, a room for preparation of medicines in aseptic conditions (Boxing), contorni and washing. When the pharmacy must be a basement, storage room for the storage of medical property and other facilities. At the pharmacy, where small amount of work, in the same room as may be prescribed and assistant, assistant and sterilizing, washing and kokori and so on Basic pharmaceutical positions in the pharmacy busy professionals with higher pharmaceutical education; the position of receptor controller, defector and assistant can be busy and persons with secondary pharmaceutical education. Of the auxiliary personnel in the pharmacy are packers and nurses (scrub women).
One of the most important functions of pharmacy is a storage of drugs, so that they remained benign during the holiday to the population or medical institutions. Various drugs can change their properties under the influence of the different reasons, so there are separate rules for storage of each group of medicines (for example, the rules of storage in the pharmacy drugs that change under the action of light, humidity, temperature, rules of storage of volatile substances, gases, flammable and explosive substances, and so on). There are special provisions for the storage of poisonous and drastic substances (see And, B), medicinal vegetative raw materials, vitamins and certain medicinal forms (for example, solutions for injections, pills, and so on). There are also rules of storage of rubber products, surgical instruments, dressing materials and other equipment. For many drugs in the State Pharmacopoeia limit set shelf life and storage conditions. The storage period or shelf life, medicines vary from several months to several years. The Pharmacopoeia Committee oversees the implementation of these instructions and after marked in the document of the term, if there are no changes to the appearance of medicines, produces test analysis. Drugs that have preserved the purity, are subject to storage and sale within the time specified additional (usually about half of the initial term). Drugs that have no specified age, check if a change of appearance. Retention periods are calculated from the time of the manufacture of drugs and to plant raw materials - from the date of receipt to the warehouse of the manufacturer. Storage times can change, and pharmacists are obliged to systematically monitor the status of medicines, follow the instructions on changing the storage time from the Pharmacopoeia Committee of the Ministry of health of the USSR. When external changes, medicines must be analyzed immediately (without waiting for the deadline set in the document).
For the first time in our country created the control and analytical service of the drugstores, which verifies the quality of medicines, which is designed to provide the population with high-quality medicines.
When doctors, medical assistants and feldsher-midwife stations are the so-called pharmacies in two categories: the right of manufacturing of drugs and for sale of drugs in ready packages. Pharmacies of the first category are headed by persons with pharmaceutical education and are branches of pharmacies. Unlike chemists, this item has a minimum of instruments and equipment provided to the pharmacy chain of command. Storage, manufacturing and holiday of medicines from the pharmacy first category are made by the rules established for pharmacies. Pharmacy paragraph of the second category head of the medical officer or other person with secondary medical education, who is appointed by the district health Department.

The pharmacy. In the USSR there are two types of pharmacies: self-supporting, implementing medicinal maintenance of the population and the supply of medical institutions, hospital, which serve medical institutions, in which they are located. The standards of accommodation drugstore chain (the number of inhabitants per pharmacy) is shown in table. 1.
Hospital pharmacies are organized at treatment-and-prophylactic establishments with more than 100 beds.
Depending on the volume of trade and the compounding pharmacies are divided into six categories. Pharmacies of I-IV categories have specialized departments: retsepturno-industrial, over-the-counter health care products, etc. In all A. includes analytical tables, and in the presence of the state chemist-analyst - rooms. The medicines which are released from A., are one of the types of store preparing control.
The order of storage of medicines in the pharmacy, manufacturing, quality control and dispensing is regulated by the Ministry of health of the USSR.
The composition and regulations of floor space (in m2) A. self-financing are given in table. 2 and shown on Fig. 1.
Facilities for sick leave A. provides for typical projects of hospitals (Fig. 2).

Fig. 1. Layout pharmacies II categories: 1 - room; 2 - storage dressings; 3 - raspakovochnyh; 4 - the material of retsepturno-industrial branch; 5 - filling; 6 - washing; 7 - a cube-sterilization; 8 - closet; 9 - sanitary unit; 10 - storage of oxygen; 11 - storage of mineral waters; 12 and 13 - material branch-prescription; 14 - Department-prescription; 15 - branch of optics; 16 - hall services of visitors: 17 - material branch of optics; 18 - prescription; 19 - assistant; 20 - aseptic; 21 - Cabinet chemical analyses; 22 - office; 23 - the duty officer's room; 24 - office Manager; 25 - service.
Fig. 2. Layout pharmacies hospital for 400 beds: 1 - aseptic; 2 - a cube-sterilization, 3 - assistant; 4 - head office; 5 - prescription; 6 - washing; 7 - room to wait; 8 - material.