Arboviral infections

Arboviral infections (synonym vector-borne viral infection) - a group of infectious diseases caused by arboviruses and transmitted by blood-sucking arthropods (vector borne by). This route of transmission is so characteristic of arboviral infections that on this basis in the same group the joint different clinical characteristics of the disease.
To arboviral infections include viral encephalitides (tick spring and summer, mosquito summer-autumn, or Japanese, and others), yellow fever, haemorrhagic fever type Omsk, mosquito fever, dengue and other
Arbovirus (viruses of vertebrates, portable arthropods) are widely spread in the world, especially in countries with hot climate.
We know of at least 170 species of arboviruses, of which more than 50 species pathogenic for humans. Arbovirus classified by antigenic and serological properties on the group. They are grown in chicken embryos and cultures of tissues of various animals, birds, insects, man.
In the nature of arboviral infections ill with various animals, particularly rodents. The infection is passed from an infected animal to a person of blood-sucking insects (ticks, mosquitoes, mosquitoes, biting midges)in the body which the parasite multiplies. Distribution of arboviral infections is confined to the area of natural distribution of the vector. In connection with these diseases peculiar to natural focality (endemic foci) and a certain seasonality. Rises disease coincide with the greatest intensity of reproduction and activity of blood-sucking vectors (spring, summer, autumn). On the territory of the Soviet Union of arboviral infections in persons registered tick spring-summer encephalitis in taiga and forest areas; mosquito summer-autumn encephalitis in Primorsky Krai (the incidence of this encephalitis recently almost eliminated); hemorrhagic fever in separate endemic foci in Omsk, Orenburg regions, Central Asia, the Crimea, the European part of the USSR; fever mosquito (Crimea, Caucasus).
Prevention. The fight against vectors (see Disinsection) and to protect people from the bite them, the rodents (see Deratization), protection of products from pollution discharge rodents. You must boiling milk, as some arboviral infections (for example, tick-borne encephalitis), except for vector-borne transmission, possible nutritional path (the affected raw milk goats).
Specific prevention carried out in endemic foci of tick and mosquito encephalitis special testimony vaccine, the immune horse serum or gamma-globulin. Both of the last drug injected Besedka.
Separate disease - see articles by title diseases (e.g. Dengue fever, Encephalitis and other).

Arboviral infections (synonym vector-borne viral infection) infection caused by arboviruses. To arboviral infections are various forms of encephalitis, yellow fever, dengue, pappataci and other Dissemination A. I. limited by the geographic distribution of the vector of the virus that causes their natural focality (endemic). For most of A. I. characterized by a strong seasonality. Maximum lifting coincides with the period of most intensive breeding and activity of blood-sucking mosquitoes. People infected with the attack on him is infected vectors (tick-borne encephalitis virus is transmitted through milk infected goats). On the territory of the USSR A. I. meet: tick the spring-summer encephalitis (everywhere), Omsk hemorrhagic fever, Japanese encephalitis (Primorsky Krai). Recently disease Japanese encephalitis in this country, the question of the possible presence of other A. I. studied.
Arbovirus [Arboviruses - abbreviation of words arthropod borne viruses; synonym: vector-borne viruses (E. N. Pavlovsky), Arthropodophiliales (C. M. Zhdanov, S. Ya., Russian)] - viruses of vertebrates, portable arthropods (ticks, mosquitoes, mosquitoes, biting midges)in the body which they breed profusely, but pathogenic do not. Arbovirus should be distinguished from viruses insects (Arthropodviruses, or Insecto-viruses) and plant viruses transmitted by arthropods.
Arbovirus subdivided on the basis of their antigenic properties. The members of the group give serological cross-reactions; for different groups based associations serve different serological reactions.
Groups have a letter symbols (a, b, C) or named by the most studied virus (Bogambara, Bwamba and others). By 1962 the number of known arboviruses reached 178, and 42 of them have to classify failed.
Arbovirus widely distributed around the globe, meeting, however, mainly in tropical countries.
Their sizes range from 30-40 to 150-180 MMK. The most studied arboviruses - spherical shape and built by cubic symmetry; some (with helical symmetry) have the form of a stick with one end rounded, and the other is flat.
Arbovirus collapse under the influence of ether, chloroform and desoxycholate. When temperature 56-60 degree inactivation occurs within 10-30 minutes Die at pH = 3,0. Proteolytic enzymes destroy viruses group B and absolutely no effect on the group A.
All arbovirus pathogenic for newborn mice infection of the brain; many of them are pathogenic for different animals at different ways of introduction. Pathogenicity to humans has been installed in more than 50 arboviruses.
Multiply in chicken embryos, and viruses groups And often cause them a quick death within 24-48 hours. Tissue culture of many species of animals, humans, birds, mosquitoes and ticks, as well as the culture of transplantable cells capable of supporting reproduction of arboviruses in vitro; cytopathic effect depends on the type of virus and tissues; the most common primary cultures of chick fibroblasts, kidney hamster and human HeLa cells. The vast majority of arboviruses has hemagglutination properties. The hemagglutinin, stable in alkaline medium (pH=8,0-9,0) and quickly lost in acid (pH=6,0), are found in the brain, blood serum of infected mice and in the liquid phase tissue cultures after removal inhibitors. For haemagglutination using 0.25% erythrocyte suspension of geese or newborn Chicks. The hemagglutination flows in the narrow, optimal for each virus zone pH. Laboratory diagnostics is carried out by virus isolation on 1-2-day mice and tissue cultures. Serological diagnosis is made using the RAC, reactions of haemagglutination inhibition and neutralization with sera of patients.
The basis for inclusion in the group arboviruses new members are: sensitivity to dezoksiholatom, the ability to multiply in mosquitoes Aеdes aegypti or the availability of serological cross-reactions with any representative of arboviruses.