Aristotle in tonsure

How short was the domination of the medieval Arab culture! Its development was in VIII-X century, and then Baghdad, the embodiment of the best cultural and scientific forces of the Arab Caliphate, the center of translation activity, gave place to the other cities. After the tenth century notable successes in scientific research of the world and in medicine have made the Spanish city of Cordoba, Seville, Malaga.
"The art and science had never known such a flourishing under the sky of Spain, " we read in the first Chapter of the historical novel Lyon fejhtvangera "Spanish ballad. - Devised system of education with a wide network of schools gave everyone the opportunity to gain knowledge. In the city of Cordoba was three thousand schools in each city had its own University, such rich library world knew only in the heyday of the Hellenistic Alexandria".
It is Spain turned out to be the channel through which the spiritual treasures of Arab culture rushed to the countries of Christian Europe. From France, England, Italy to get here to the people, eager to get in touch with invaluable knowledge. Among them were persons spiritual rank, such as Herbert, later Pope Sylvester II, and Gerard of Cremona. First, we have familiarity with numbers, which now are called Arabic. Second translated into Latin language "Almagest", chief work of astronomer Ptolemy, and "Canon of medical science" by Ibn Sina.
It is noteworthy that the Church, the same thought atheists and scientists, magicians, and sorcerers, revealing the tendency to science the Pope Sylvester II, is also suspected him of witchcraft.
About 1150 in the Christian world was the translation of the Arabic writings, based on the works of Aristotle. Although these works gave a distorted, sometimes the wrong idea about the works of the Greek philosopher - original were translated into Arabic, then in Castilian, and then in Latin language - this event was a step forward on the way towards a new era, called the Renaissance.
The Church was not slow to note unwanted impetus in the intellectual life of the society. In 1209 she announced that, under pain of excommunication prohibits read publicly or secretly works of Aristotle and comments to them.
Theologians have used the complexity and inconsistency of the philosophy of the great Greek. They skillfully used his works, adapting to their needs the most obsolete, making the teachings of Aristotle, in the words of C. I. Lenin, "dead scholasticism, throwing all searches, variations, methods of questions". Churchmen took from ancient philosopher logic, to conduct sophisticated theological disputes, and refused from the main. And the main Aristotle was his scientific works, faith in the power of reason, the power and objective truth of cognition.
With regard to this side of his philosophy, the Church tried to destroy her memory. Such Aristotle did not meet Christian worldview, traditional religious thinking. Theologians have tried to acquaint the society with another philosopher with Aristotle in tonsure. What is tonsure?
Once in ancient times, the priests, devoting themselves to the service of the gods, was laid upon the altar to shave off his hair as a sacrifice mighty heavenly forces and as a sign of its mediation efforts between the world of the gods and the world of people. The priests who worshipped the sun, shaved on top like solar circle. The Catholic Church has inherited this ancient custom. The resolution Toledo Cathedral 633, tonsure (from the Latin word meaning haircut) noted the face of the clergy in the Catholic religion.
The same skillful editing passed and works of Galen. He also returned to Europe. The clergy even bribed the impression of completeness and the extent to which the writings of Roman cover all areas of medicine. In this respect his work impressed traditional medieval thinking, highly valued the monumentality, immobility, not prone to further development. Unattainable example of this gave the Bible truths and covenants data, as it seemed, for ever.
But, even appreciating the diversity of Galen, the Church took in his writings that she arranged. She was changed and had been acknowledged by Galen, who wanted to see. Favorably endorsed all superstitious ideas in the field of medicine as the ancient Roman doctor and his predecessors, including the doctrine of intangible special forces, allegedly controlling all the processes in the human organism and disease too. As might be expected, the Church did not support the aspirations of Galen to experiments on animals and lay aside his advice: "He who will read my treatise, before you speak "for" or "against", will need to verify the facts with your own eyes".
Such Galen not fit into the framework of religious faith, did not meet the standards of dogmatic thinking.
But that the Church in Galena acknowledged that considered infallible, it was turned into a Canon. The clergy vigilantly watched that none of the doctors had not escaped for the specified limits. To oppose Galen meant to go against the Catholic Church, and these brave souls were waiting for the charges of witchcraft, and in Union with Satan himself.
...A new wave of destructive ancient literature brought Crusades, inspired and organized by the Roman Church with very different aggressive purposes. Eight times during a century and a half thousand people at will of the clergy rushed to distant lands for the liberation of the Christian Holy places from the rule of the infidels. Military campaigns, ventured by Church, ended in defeat, but he has seen and heard, brought from distant lands steadily did their work, shaking the traditional view, revealing new horizons for the inquisitive mind.
It turned out that the sky may not only threaten, but to attract endless its spaciousness, encouraging the mind to daring knowledge.