Heart arrhythmia

Heart arrhythmia is cardiac activity, expressed in the change of frequency, power or sequence of heart contractions. Arrhythmias may occur in violation of developing momentum to the contraction of the heart in the sinus node (see the Heart), in violation of conduction of the impulse from the Atria to the ventricles, and when the heart muscle additional foci of excitation in which impulses are produced, in addition to the sinus node. In normal conditions, the impulses are produced in sinus node through an almost equal time intervals 60-80 times in 1 min. With the violations of automaticity node may change the rate of generation of pulses: the increase of heart is called sinus tachycardia (see), ischemia - sinus bradycardia. When the sinus arrhythmia pulses occur at irregular intervals. This arrhythmia often linked to the act of breathing - respiratory arrhythmia: breathe pulse quickens, on the exhale - slows; observed in children recovering explains easy excitability of the vagus nerve. The treatment it requires.
Premature beats - a heart rhythm disorder, associated with occurrence in the heart muscle additional foci excitation pulses of which cause premature contraction of the heart (beats). Because after a contraction of the heart muscle while still newsradio (refractory phase), the next normal pulse of the sinus node may not cause contractions of the heart, you receive a long pause (compensatory) before the next pulse of the sinus node. Arrythmia observed in many diseases of the heart and at the raised nervous excitability. Patients with arrythmia can feel the heart failures or stop him, followed by a strong blow. Sometimes you receive multiple PVCs in a row (group arrythmia); sometimes beats should after each normal reduction (bigeminiya). Extrasystoles it is easy to recognize when the pulse research on premature appearance of pulse wave, followed by a long pause, or loss of separate shock pulse. To specify the diagnosis arrythmia and to determine in what part of the heart muscle is more excitation focus helps electrocardiography (see). Arrythmia can be found both in patients and healthy people (for example, children in prepubertal period), so by themselves extrasystoles not indicate the severity of heart failure. Treatment: sedatives (bromine, Valerian) and means that reduces anxiety heart muscle (quinine 0.1 g 2-3 times a day, quinidine 0.2-0.3 g 3 times in laziness, and then oseltamivir 0.1 - 0.2 g; novokainamid 0.5-1.0 g 3-4 times a day). Ban Smoking, drinking alcohol, strong tea, coffee.
Paroxysmal tachycardia - a sudden sharp acceleration of heart rate (up to 200 - 240 beats per 1 min); in this case, all the impulses are of the additional excitation focus. Continued attack from several seconds to several days, ends as abruptly. Treatment: attack paroxysmal tachycardia sometimes manage to liquidate reflex irritation of the vagus nerve, which exert pressure on the eyeballs or on the carotid artery, offer the patient Naturita, induce vomiting. If these measures do not help, to destination the doctor used the drug. Intravenous drugs naperstanki: divinized 0.5 to 1 ml in 20 ml of 40% solution of glucose (enter slowly), strofantin 0.5-1 ml of 0.05% solution in 10-20 ml of 20% glucose solution (enter slowly), intramuscularly or intravenously 5-10 ml 10% solution of procainamide hydrochloride, intramuscular injection of 10 ml of 25% solution of magnesium sulfate inside chloride potassium, low doses of quinine, quinidine 0.2-0.3 g every 2-4 hours under the supervision of ECG. In the absence of effective drug treatment and with frequent attacks of paroxysmal tachycardia shows the treatment in hospital.
The blockade heart - rhythm disorder involving a violation of conduction of the impulse from the Atria to the ventricles (the atrioventricular block), or a bunch of GIS (vnutrijeludockova blockade). Heart block may occur when rheumatism, myocarditis, cardiosclerosis, digitalis intoxication, increases tone wandering nerve. Of atrioventricular blockade may be partial and full. At partial blockade increases the time of the impulse from the Atria to the ventricles and individual pulses can't reach the ventricles. Full blockade all the impulses from the sinus node don't reach the ventricles and only cause atrial contraction. The ventricles are produced its own impulses 20-40 times per 1 minute, so such patients is observed rare pulse. When listening to the heart are determined rare muted colours. At times heard a loud tone I - "cannon tone Strazhesko", due to the simultaneous contraction of the Atria and ventricles. In very rare pulse of a patient can lose consciousness (see Adams - Stokes syndrome Morgagni). Treatment is directed at the elimination of the process that caused the blockade. Appoint agents, improving conductivity and increase your heart rate,- prednisolone (by prescription), adrenaline, ephedrine, izadrin, atropine in normal doses. In some cases, applied artificial electronic pacemaker.
Atrial fibrillation - the rhythm disorder, in which the Atria pump, but not all, individual muscle fibers, impulses to the ventricles do randomly and reductions occur at irregular intervals of time, with varying force. Observed in mitral stenosis, cardiosclerosis, thyrotoxicosis, myocarditis. Atrial fibrillation can be permanent, or in the form of attacks (paroxysmal flicker). It adversely affects the blood circulation, especially with a significant acceleration of heart rate. To fight it at frequent rhythm prescribed drugs type digitalis. To restore sinus rhythm with constant atrial fibrillation is sometimes possible appointment of quinidine. a more efficient method of electrical defibrillation (effects on heart discharge current of high voltage). Paroxizmah flicker recommended drugs naperstanki, novokainamid, potassium chloride, quinidine.

Heart arrhythmia (gr. arrhythmia - lack of rhythm, gaps), violations of heart rhythm, which consists in the change of frequency or sequence, or the force of heart contractions. To A. S. and include changes in the sequence of arousal or reduction of individual parts of the heart. Classification of different forms A. S. is based on their pathogenesis, due to a violation of the basic functions of the heart: automaticity, excitability and conduction sokratimosti.