Changes in blood pressure

The importance of good clinical assessment of changes in blood pressure in athletes is not subject to doubt. The question is not only whether to exercise persons with altered levels of blood pressure, but also on identification and clinical assessment early phases and stages, Hyper - and hypertensive disease. Unfortunately, so far in sports medicine practice is still no clarity and consensus on this issue. However, it is clear that each case Hyper - and hypotension as athletes and involved in health physical education requires differential diagnostic analysis. Although the measurement of arterial pressure in exercise conducted by sports physicians for a long time, still not defined exactly the same level characteristic of the athletes.
G. F. lang, A. L. Myasnikov and many others believe that sports and physical labor if they are not excessive and lowering blood pressure.
In our country systematically conducted blood pressure measurements at various population groups for early detection of its changes, and study the effects on the level of external factors (nature of work, sex, age, and so on). However, among athletes such mass studies were conducted little. Obtained by different authors of various sizes blood pressure athletes are accidental, because, in our view, the following three circumstances. First, in most cases examined a small number of persons, which determined the lack of reliability of the obtained data. Secondly, the examined group of athletes has not always been uniform, usually insufficient account of sports specialization training period and so on, however it is known that these, and other factors (especially the focus of the training process) major influence on the level of arterial pressure. And, third, different authors use different evaluation criteria normal blood pressure. Known is the method of its determination.
The issue of standards blood pressure still cannot be considered to be finally resolved, moreover, that over time, these standards are subject to change and should be reviewed periodically. Nowadays in our country the vast majority of the authors consider normal the following values: systolic - 100-129 mm RT. Art., diastolic - 60-80 mm RT. senior Correctness of these quantities for persons under the age of 39 years is confirmed by the works of many authors [Molchanov, N. With, 1962; Rybkin, I. A. and others, 1965, and mn. others]. These standards are used in a large part of the work devoted to the study of blood pressure in athletes. Be classified as Hyper - and hypotension States should only be those in which the blood pressure is beyond the above range of norms. Given that the athletes in the great majority of cases, blood pressure is at the lower limit of the norm, we should pay attention to indicators that are located on the upper limit of normal.
Raising and lowering blood pressure should be considered not only simultaneous change in systolic and diastolic, but also changes only systolic or only diastolic pressure. It is also necessary to attach importance not only to constant changes in blood pressure, but once or repeatedly specified on the General background of normal blood pressure.
These changes undoubtedly testify about violations of vasomotor reactivity of the system, and these individuals require attention.
Essential to obtain accurate values has methods of measurement. Blood pressure is measured by mercury or spring pressure gauge and a hollow rubber cuff width 14 cm and length sufficient for an overlay on the shoulder. The need to use manzhetok the same width is of great importance to obtain accurate value. When using mercury tonometer the unit is mounted on a horizontal surface. The cuff is smooth and tight impose on bare shoulder. The bottom edge of the cuff should be about 2 cm above the elbow joint. The hand must be freely and imposed empty cuff should not take off his shoulder. The air quickly pump in the cuff until then, until there is no longer pulse on a radial artery, after which the pressure in the cuff raise another 20-30 mm RT. Art. Then below the edge of the cuff, on the place where usually is palpated ulnar artery, impose the head of the stethoscope. The pressure in the cuff reduce a speed of no more than 2-3 mm RT. Art. on each pulse kick and when the first clearly audible tone pulse kick celebrate systolic pressure. With a further reduction of air pressure in the cuff is celebrated as a time of weakening of tones, and their disappearance. You should keep track of both values, and the diastolic pressure is celebrated in the time of a sharp weakening of tones. It is important to measure the pressure on both hands, considering it is reduced or increased only when it is reduced or increased in both hands. This uniform methods of measurement adopted by the who (1962).
Before proceeding to clinical evaluation of high and low pressure in athletes, it is necessary to have a clear idea about the General level of persons, involved in sports. A number of works in which investigated a large number of sportsmen in this issue clarified. It turned out that in 70-80 % of athletes pressure is within the norm. However, more than half of them it is at the lower limit of the norm, i.e., from 100 to 119 mm RT. Art. for systolic and 60-69 mm RT. Art. - for diastolic.
Thus, the General level of blood pressure in athletes reduced, but this reduction does not extend beyond normal parameters. As for athletes with a pressure higher or lower than normal, both these groups meet approximately equally often, more often - athletes with reduced blood pressure. According to different authors, the percentage of athletes with reduced blood pressure is from 10 to 19, while increased from 9 to 13.
It is necessary to mention that we are talking about the mean values obtained in the study of blood pressure in a large number of sportsmen without regard to gender, age, orientation of training process and training. However, all these factors influence the level of blood pressure in athletes and should be considered when analyzing blood pressure in each individual athlete.