Artery

Arteries are blood vesselsthat carry away from the heart to all parts of the body arterial blood rich with oxygen and nutrients. The exception is the artery of a small circle of blood circulation, which moves venous blood from the heart to the lungs. The combination of all the arteries generally forms the arterial system, which represents part of the cardiovascular system.
The largest artery is the aorta. From her leave the arteries that as the distance from the heart branch out to be smaller. The most delicate arteries called arterioles. In the thickness of the bodies artery branched until capillaries (see). Nearby artery is often connected with anastomoses, through which the collateral blood flow. Usually Anastasiya arteries are formed blood plexus and networks. The artery that supplies blood to the site of the authority (segment lung, kidney, liver), is called a segment.
The artery wall consists of three layers: the inner - endothelial or intima medium - muscle, or the media, with some amount of collagen and elastic fibers and outdoor connective tissue, or adventitia; the artery wall richly supplied with blood vessels and nerves that are located mainly in the outer and middle layers. Based on the characteristics of the structure of the wall of the artery are divided into three types: muscle, muscle and elastic (for example, carotid artery) and elastic (for example, aorta). The muscular arteries type are small arteries and middle-sized arteries (for example, radiation, shoulder, thigh). Elastic frame of the arterial wall prevents it from losing, offering continuous current of blood in it.
Usually artery over a large area lie at a depth of between muscles and bones about which it is possible to press the artery when the bleeding. On the surface lying artery (such as radiation) felt the pulse.
The walls of the arteries have their own supply of their blood vessels (vessels vessels"). Motor and sensory innervation of the arteries is sympathetic, parasympathetic nerves and branches traumatic brain or spinal nerves. Nerves artery penetrate into the middle layer (vasomotor - vasomotor nerves) and are reducing muscle fibers of the vascular wall and the change of the lumen of the artery.
Pathology artery - see Aneurysm, the Takayasu, Atherosclerosis, Endarteritis. Cm. also the Blood vessels.

arteries of the head of the trunk and upper limbs in pictures scheme
Fig. 1. Arteries of the head, torso and upper limbs:
1 - a. facialis; 2 - a. lingualis; 3 - a. thyreoidea sup.; 4 - a. carotis communis sin.; 5-a. subclavia sin.; 6 - a. axillaris; 7 - arcus aortae"; " is - aorta ascendens; 9-a. brachialis sin.; 10 - a. thoracica int.; 11 - aorta thoracica; 12 - aorta abdominalis; 13 - a. phrenica sin.; 14 - truncus coeliacus; 15 - a. mesenterica sup.; 16 - a. renalis sin.; 17 - a. testiculars sin.; 18 - a. mesenterica inf.; 19 - a. ulnaris; 20-a. interossea communis; 21 - a. radialis; 22 - a. interossea ant.; 23 - a. epigastrica inf.; 24 - arcus palmaris superficialis; 25 - arcus palmaris profundus; 26 - aa. digitales palmares communes; 27 - aa. digitales palmares propriae; 28 - aa. digitales dorsales; 29 - aa. metacarpeae dorsales; 30 - ramus carpeus dorsalis; 31-a, profunda femoris; 32 - a. femoralis; 33 - a. interossea post.; 34 - a. iliaca externa dextra; 35 - a. iliaca interna dextra; 36 - a. sacraiis mediana; 37 - a. iliaca communis dextra; 38 - aa. lumbales; 39 - a. renalis dextra; 40 - aa. intercostales post.; 41-a. profunda brachii; 42-a. brachialis dextra; 43 - truncus brachio-cephalicus; 44 - a. subciavia dextra; 45 - a. carotis communis dextra; 46 - a. carotis externa; 47-a. carotis interna; 48-a. vertebralis; 49 - a. occipitalis; 50 - a. temporalis superficialis.

artery front surface of the tibia and rear foot popliteal and posterior surface of tibia the plantar surface of the foot in pictures scheme
Fig. 2. Artery front surface of the tibia and rear foot:
1 - a, genu descendens (ramus articularis); 2 - ram! musculares; 3 - a. dorsalis pedis; 4 - a. arcuata; 5 - ramus plantaris profundus; 5-aa. digitales dorsales; 7-aa. metatarseae dorsales; 8 - ramus perforans a. peroneae; 9 - a. tibialis ant.; 10-a. recurrens tibialis ant.; 11 - rete patellae et rete articulare genu; 12 - a. genu sup. lateralis.
Fig. 3. The popliteal artery and the posterior surface of tibia:
1 - a. poplitea; 2 - a. genu sup. lateralis; 3 - a. genu inf. lateralis; 4 - a. peronea (fibularis); 5 - rami malleolares tat.; 6 - rami calcanei (lat.); 7 - rami calcanei (med.); 8 - rami malleolares mediales; 9 - a. tibialis post.; 10 - a. genu inf. medialis; 11 - a. genu sup. medialis.
Fig. 4. Artery plantar surface of the foot:
1 - a. tibialis post.; 2 - rete calcaneum; 3 - a. plantaris lat.; 4 - a. digitalis plantaris (V); 5 - arcus plantaris; 6 - aa. metatarseae plantares; 7-aa. digitales propriae; 8 - a. digitalis plantaris (hallucis); 9 - a. plantaris medialis.

artery of the abdominal cavity in pictures scheme
Fig. 5. Artery of the abdominal cavity:
1 - a. phrenica sin.; 2 - a. gastrica sin.; 3 - truncus coeliacus; 4-a. lienalis; 5-a. mesenterica sup.; 6 - a. hepatica communis; 7-a. gastroepiploica sin.; 8 - aa. jejunales; 9-aa. ilei; 10-a. colica sin.; 11-a. mesenterica inf.; 12-a. iliaca communis sin.; 13-aa sigmoideae; 14 - a. rectalis sup.; 15 - a. appendicis vermiformis; 16-a. ileocolica; 17-a. iliaca communis dextra; 18 - a. colica. dext.; 19 - a. pancreaticoduodenal inf.; 20 - a. colica media; 21 - a. gastroepiploica dextra; 22 - a. gastroduodenalis; 23 - a. gastrica dextra; 24 - a. hepatica propria; 25 - a, cystica; 26 - aorta abdominalis.

Artery (gr. arteria) - a system of blood vessels originating from the heart to all parts of the body and containing blood, oxygen-rich (the exception is a. pulmonalis that carries venous blood from the heart to the lungs). Arterial system includes the aorta and all its ramifications down to the smallest arterioles (Fig. 1-5). Artery usually designated by a topographical basis (a. facialis, a. poplitea) or on the name of the supply authority (a. renalis, AA. cerebri). Arteries are cylindrical elastic tubes of various diameter and are divided into large, medium and small. The division into smaller arteries branch there are three main types (C. N. Shevkunenko).
When the main type of division is well expressed the main trunk, gradually decreasing in diameter as a discharge from him secondary branches. Loose type is characterized by short the main trunk, quickly disintegrating on the mass of the secondary branches. Transition, or mixed, type occupies an intermediate position. The branches of the arteries often are connected to each other, forming the anastomoses. There are anastomoses system (between the branches of one of the arteries) and interconnection (between different branches of the arteries) (B. A. Long-Saburov). Most anastomoses there permanently as roundabout (collateral) ways circulation. In some cases collaterals can reappear. Small arteries with arterio-venous anastomoses (see) can directly connect with the veins.
Artery - derivative mesenchyme. During embryonic development to the original thin endothelial tubes join muscle, elastic elements and adventitia, also mesenchymal origin. Histologically in the wall of the artery allocate three basic shell: internal (tunica's intima, s. interna), medium (tunica media, s. muscularis) and external (tunica adventitia, s. externa) (Fig. 1). The peculiarities of the structure there are artery muscle, muscle is more elastic and elastic types.
The muscular arteries type are small and medium-sized arteries, as well as most of the arteries of the internal organs. Inner sheath artery includes endothelium, potentailly layers and internal elastic lamina. Endothelium lines the lumen of the artery and consists of elongated along the axis of the vessel, flat cells with oval kernel. The border between cells have a look wavy or finely dentate line. According to electron microscopy, between cells is constantly kept very narrow (about 100) period. For endothelial cells are characterized by the presence in the cytoplasm of a significant number puzinkevich structures. Potentailly layer consists of connective tissue with a very thin elastic and collagen fibers and undifferentiated cells star-shaped form. Potentailly layer is well developed in the arteries of large and medium calibre. Internal elastic, or fenestrated, the membrane (membrana elastica interna, s.membrana fenestrata) has a plate-fibrillar structure with holes of various shapes and sizes and is closely related to the elastic fibers porandamaalingud layer.
The average shell consists mainly of smooth muscle cells that are arranged in a spiral. Between muscle cells there are a small number of elastic and collagen fibers. In the arteries of average size on the border between the middle and outer shells elastic fibers may thicken, forming the outer elastic membrane (membrana elastica externa). Complex muscular-elastic frame of muscular arteries type not only protects the vessel wall from prirastajte and tear and provides its elastic properties, but also allows the arteries to actively change their clearance.
Artery muscle-elastic, or mixed type (for example, sleepy and subclavian artery) have thicker walls with increased content of elastic elements. In average the shell appear fenestrated elastic membrane. The thickness of the inner elastic membrane also increased. In adventitia an additional inner layer, containing a separate bundles of smooth muscle cells.
The elastic type arteries are the vessels of the largest caliber - aorta (see) and the pulmonary artery (see). In them even more increases the thickness of the vascular wall, especially the middle shell, dominated by elastic elements as 40-50 powerfully developed fenestrated elastic membranes, United elastic fibers (Fig. 2). Thickness porandamaalingud layer is also increasing, and in it, besides loose connective tissue rich in stellate cells forms (layer Langhans), there are separate smooth muscle cells. Structural features of the elastic type arteries correspond to their main functional purpose - mainly passive anti strong push of blood pumped out of the heart under great pressure. The various departments of the aorta that is different in its functional load, contain varying amounts of elastic fibers. Wall arterioles saves greatly reduced trunk of a three-layer structure. The arteries that supply blood to the internal organs, are avilable intraorganic and distribution branches. The branches of the arteries of hollow organs (stomach, intestines) form in the wall of the body of the network. Typical topography and several other features are artery in parenchymatous organs.
Histochemically in the main substance of all shells arteries and especially in the inner membrane is detected significant number of mucopolysaccharides. The walls of the arteries have their own supply of their blood vessels. and v. vasorum, s. vasa vasorum). Vasa vasorum are located in adventitia. The power of the inner lining and the edge with her part of the Central shell is made from plasma through the endothelium by pinocytosis. With the help of electronic microscopy revealed that many appendages extending from the basal surface of endothelial cells through holes in the inner elastic membrane reach the muscle cells. With the reduction artery many small and medium-sized Windows in the inner elastic membrane partially or completely closed, and therefore it is difficult to talk of nutrients through the processes of endothelial cells into muscle cells. Of great importance in feeding areas of the vascular wall, deprived of vasa vasorum, attached to the base material.
Motor and sensory innervation of the arteries is sympathetic, parasympathetic nerves and branches traumatic brain or spinal nerves. The nerves of the arteries that form in adventitia plexus, penetrate into the middle shell, and are referred to as vasomotor nerves (vasomotor)providing contraction of the muscle fibers of the vascular wall and the narrowing of the artery. The walls of the arteries is equipped with many sensitive nerve endings - enginezation. In some areas of the vascular system, especially a lot of them and they form a reflexogenic zones, such as the place of division of the common carotid artery in the field of carotid sinus. The thickness of the walls of the arteries and their structure is subject to significant individual and age-related changes. And arteries have a high potential for regeneration.
Artery pathology - see Aneurysm, Aortic, Arteritis, Atherosclerosis, Coronary., Coronarosclerosis, Endarteritis.
Cm. also the Blood vessels.



Carotid artery

arcus aortae
Fig. 1. Arcus aortae and its branches: 1 - mm. stylohyoldeus, sternohyoideus et omohyoideus; 2 and 22 - a. carotis int.; 3 and 23 - a. carotis ext.; 4 - m. cricothyreoldeus; 5 and 24 - aa. thyreoideae superiores sin. et dext.; 6 - glandula thyreoidea; 7 - truncus thyreocervicalis; 8 - trachea; 9 - a. thyreoidea ima; 10 and 18 - a. subclavia sin. et dext.; 11 and 21 - a. carotis communis sin. et dext.; 12 - truncus pulmonaiis; 13 - auricula dext.; 14 - pulmo dext.; 15 - arcus aortae; 16 - v. cava sup.; 17 - truncus brachiocephalicus; 19 - m. scalenus ant.; 20 - plexus brachialis; 25 - glandula submandibularis.
arteria carotis
Fig. 2. Arteria carotis communis dextra and its branch; 1 - a. facialis; 2 - a. occipitalis; 3 - a. lingualis; 4 - a. thyreoidea sup.; 5 - a. thyreoidea inf.; 6-a. carotis communis; 7 - truncus thyreocervicalis; 8 and 10 - a. subclavia; 9 - a. thoracica int.; 11 - plexus brachialis; 12 - a. transversa colli; 13 - a. cervicalis superficialis; 14 - a. cervicalis ascendens; 15-a. carotis ext.; 16 - a. carotis int.; 17 - a. vagus; 18 - n. hypoglossus; 19 - a. auricularis post.; 20 - a. temporalis superficialis; 21 - a. zygomaticoorbitalis.

Fig. 1. Cross section of an artery: 1 - outer shell with longitudinal beams muscle fibers 2, 3-average shell; 4 - endothelium; 5 - inner elastic membrane.

Fig. 2. A cross-section of the thoracic aorta. Elastic membrane average shell reduced (about) and relaxed (b). 1 - endothelium; 2 - intima; 3 - inner elastic membrane; 4 - elastic membrane middle shell.