Osteoarthritis is a joint disease caused by malnutrition articular ends of bones in the result of direct trauma, re minor damage, overload of a professional nature (the movers, dancers, athletes), arthritis, intoxication of the organism. Arthritis begins gradually, more commonly in persons over 40 years. Pain, first variable, blurred; characterized by pain after a long rest, then the disappearance them as sick "at odds", and again increased pain after exercise when walking, standing. The course of chronic osteoarthritis, acute occur when General diseases, fatigue. The pain gradually increase, made permanent; you receive the restriction of movements in the joints up to a complete loss of function. Pain caused by destruction of cartilage, and then and bone epiphyses. The soft tissue in the area of the affected joint from the constant irritation of inflamed. Osteoarthritis can affect how large joints of limbs and small, and the joints of the spine.
Treatment mainly conservative, aimed at relieving pain and inflammation: a variety of baths, mud, UHF, Bernard currents, ultrasound; procaine and alcohol-procaine blockade: radiotherapy; unloading sick extremity extension at night, use of the walking stick; amidopyrine, reopirin; massage, therapeutic exercise to save and restore movement. Prevention of exacerbations dictates the necessity of repetition of complex treatment once every six months. In severe cases, have to resort to operation of fusion (see), arthroplasty (see), endoprosthetics.

Osteoarthritis (arthrosis; from the Greek. arthron - joint) - chronic damage to the joint dystrophic-degenerate character with elements of aseptic inflammation.
Etiology of osteoarthritis - various metabolic disorders, trophoneurosis, cold-related factors (for example, workers of hot shops), intoxication, infection, acute and chronic injuries, including professional athletes, dancers, loaders). Arthrosis of any etiology leads to deformation (deforming arthrosis). The basis of pathogenesis A. lies malnutrition epiphyseal ends of bones: quality - in endocrine, toxic forms of the disease, quantitative damage blood vessels spasm, congenital narrowness or sclerosis. The resulting pockets of avascular necrosis entail reactive local changes, which in turn increases the pathological changes in the epiphyses of the bones.
Approximately one third of cases A. ill at the age of 40 years. Most often affects the knee, hip, the first metatarsophalangeal joints, at least - the joints of the upper extremities. Changes in osteoarthritis usually begin with articular cartilage. The cartilage becomes cloudy, loses elasticity, strength, becomes non-fibrous, exposing the underlying bone, which is sealed, erased; may encounter pockets of resorption. Under the influence of chronic irritation appear bone growth. Congruence joint violated. In the bag of the joint also develop aseptic inflammation; protective muscle tension increases disorders joint function.
The main symptom of osteoarthritis are pain, they begin slowly, periodically, localized, aggravated after a sharp physical activity or, on the contrary, after a long standstill. Increases the restriction of movements, inflammation of the surrounding tissue and nerves. Forced movement is always painful and are often accompanied by the crunch.
The x - ray-the narrowing of the joint space, and changing contours of the epiphyses, mushroom flattening them, the massive expansion at the edges of the joint surfaces, the discrepancy between the head and depression. Often marked listopadovka subchondral centers opening in the cancellous bone. In some cases become available joint body (mouse).
Treatment of osteoarthritis symptomatic, aimed at relieving pain; usually carried out in out-patient and sanatorium-resort conditions. The most effective variety of thermal treatments, radon and hydrogen sulfide baths, it is possible to recommend UHF, ultraviolet irradiation, Bernard currents, ultrasound. Give a good procaine and alcohol-novocaine blockade, especially in combination with unloading sore limbs (with walk - reliance on a stick, when lying - traction with a soft cuff, and small cargoes). Of drugs used derivatives amidopirina, butadiona, adrenocorticotropic hormone preparations of a number etc. In all cases shown massage, and by no longer critical phenomena - medical gymnastics. In the long, complicated cases, sometimes prescribed x-ray treatments (in small doses). In severe cases, there are indications for surgery (arthroplasty, spinal fusion). However, in these cases, the treatment should be complex and include functional methods. Cm. also Osteoarthritis.