Psycho-physiological aspects of health

Pages: 1 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14

Every action starts with the perception of external signals. From various stimuli of the external environment on the analyzers of man are all kinds of signals: relevant (i.e. directly related to this process and irrelevant (i.e., noise). At the first stage of data conversion person is a selection of useful (relevant) signals from the General mass of stimuli, resulting in the formation of the primary images signals. Formation of images consists of discovery, differentiation and recognition of signals by comparing them with known standards.
The biological value of analyzers for the body is that they are channels of receipt in the brain information about events in the environment. Receptor brain and the end of the analyzer connected bilateral. Nerve impulses reaching the brain end analyzer, not fade in it, and being certain treatments, converted and return to the receptor. Therefore, the functioning of receptors is influenced not only by external influences, but also impulses coming from the brain to the end of the analyzer. As part pathways analyzers discovered fibers going from the center to the periphery, so the weakening of the brain activity, reduced efficiency, particularly mental, directly affects the amount of information parser options.
Physiologists work have long been studying the function analyzer. They use some of the characteristics of these functions as indicators of the health of a person (C. A. Kosilov, 1960; E. M. Belostotskaya, L. I. Kanevsky, 1970; A. M. Vojava, 1973; S. I. Gorshkov, and others, 1974; I. A. Fist, 1974, and others).
In the perception of information at labor activity involves the organs of vision, hearing, and kinesthetic system.
In the study of functions of organs of vision research the ability to distinguish between light and color in a single and multiple light sources, different in intensity and color, eye accommodation, determine the critical frequency of merge of light flashed the speed of dark adaptation and other functions.
Studying the system of organs of hearing, determine the thresholds of hearing, the ability to discriminate signals to differentiate the sound in the strength and frequency of critical frequency of merge audio signals and other
To study the function of the neuromuscular system study the strength and endurance of muscles, the frequency of the contractions, the interaction of different muscle groups, touch interaction of two hands, fidelity specified movements of small and large amplitude, fidelity, given force and other functions.
In ontogenetic terms of changing various touch is heterochrony. Even the same kind of sensitivity (e.g., vibration) in connection with various life value bodies is represented with different intensity in different parts and organs of the body. So, auditory reaction to high-frequency sounds decreases with age, while the perception of sounds medium frequencies, among which are phonemic speech sounds in all languages of the world, virtually the same level. With age comes a decreased visual acuity decreases the power of accommodation. These changes in the visual system is especially evident after 45 years (N. K. Witte, H. Century Kochubei, 1969). Not less significant data Jakowski (1965) about changing the color sensitivity of view of the person, the data C. C. Kravkov (1950) and E. F. Rybalko (1969) for various changes in touch and receptive field of the optical system, etc. There is a certain regularity: in case of presentation of complex visual image for various impediments encountered in the perception of the age differences are identified certain specific indicator; they expressed greater, the stronger these "noise".