Usually when calculating the information comes from the fact that the system, which it perceives and processes, operates on the principle of consecutive division, through a series of elections of some set. Assume that the neck opportunities elections known to her. This means that the alphabet is inherent in the system in advance. However, the amount of information contained in the signal, is relative and depends on the total number of possible States, linked to the length of the alphabet. The length of the alphabet is determined by the number of all existing in the alphabet of symbols and probability previous meeting of a man with each of them. To choose the alphabet in each case it is very difficult (P. B. Nevel, 1965).

Currently, it is unknown to what extent this scheme suitable for the analysis of mental processes and are the underlying physiological processes (perception, recognition, attention, and memory) acts of choice, so formulas of the theory of information used in the study of a limited number of processes.

In particular, the basic principles of information theory were applied to characterize one of the functions of the visual analyzer. Proposed A. A. Henkinen et al. (1963), And Checom and that is Postovoy (1964), Krivohlavy (1963) and other methods differ discrepancy related to the set of the alphabet, the content of the characters and the relative neravnopravnost errors due relevant and irrelevant signals.

A. O. Navagation and centuries Kryzhanovsky (1970) to calculate the number and speed of processing of visual information developed a special technique. A number of varieties of tables with Landolt rings. Different types of tables give the chance to find a job, difficulties adequate contingent investigated and assigned tasks.

Total number of processed information (ACPI) calculate using a modified formula Shannon, in which instead of the probability entered the number of presented characters, answers and their combinations:

ACPI = 3,322 (N lg N ∑ xy lg xy - ∑ x lg x -∑ y y lg),

where 3,322 - the conversion factor from decimal logarithms to binary; N is the total number of presented rings; ∑ is a sign of summation.

Hu lg Hu = x1y1 lg x1y1 + x1y2 lg x1y2 + x1y3 lg x1y3 etc.

To assess the accuracy of the determined amount of recycled information on one character (CRPD).

KPI = ACPI/N .

The speed of information processing in the visual-motor channel (Spasm) is calculated by dividing ACPI run-time jobs t1).

Spasm = ACPI/t1

With a certain approximation can be calculated SLEEP in the visual analyzer division CUES only at the time of recognition of images, considering it is equal to the difference between the time of the writing task (t2) and the time of execution of all tasks (t1). Pets that at the output of the visual analyzer and motor reaction signals do not differ substantially. Thus,

Spit = ACPI/(t1-t2)

Methods of determining the number of processed information and speed of information processing has justified itself from studies of age and pathological changes in the body, and the effects of hard work and some production factors.

The study of the information parameters of hand-eye channel showed that in all groups at low information capacity of characters (up to 3 bits per character) of the CRPD one character is close to the maximum value. Loss of information on each character is small (0,15-0,05-bit). This pattern is observed when encoding tables with different number of characters in the alphabet, different character symbols and types of encoding (Fig. 7). If the encoding process was carried out additional work related to selection and grouping, i.e., the amount of information per symbol increased accuracy decreased, especially in people 70 years and older. When literal encoding revealed lower rates KPI than digital.

# Psycho-physiological aspects of health

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