Sewage disposal is one of the ways of clearing settlements, including the collection and temporary storage of liquid sewage, export, disposal and recycling. Despite the obvious advantage of driftwood treatment system (see sewage), recanalizing or partially sanitation settlements properly organized demolished possible to achieve a good sanitary condition.
Basic sanitary requirements for excreta disposal: do not contaminate air, soiland water; to prevent the spread of flies and rodents. It is necessary to create conditions under which completely eliminates the possibility of contact of the population and workers excreta disposal with sewage.
Collection and temporary storage of liquid waste are produced in the room for pomocnica, cesspits, arranged to collect kitchen-economic and bath-and-Laundry waters (see a Cesspool, a Lavatory).
Take out the liquid special sewage cesspool transport: loading or bucket barrels and tank trucks. The required number of vehicles to remove impurities expected on the basis of norms of accumulation of waste in the community (0,5 m3 liquid sewage per person per year in recanalizing possessions). Take out the liquid sewage at least once a month. In all cases, is not allowed to overflow dustbins, vygreba latrines and pomolic, in accordance with the terms of removal of the waste, if required, should be reduced. Slurry tank vehicles must meet the following sanitary requirements: easily loaded and unloaded, be the most mechanized, sealed - not to pollute sewage houses and streets; well cleaned and disinfected; to be safe for workers. The best view of the slurry tank transport are tankers. They meet all these requirements, in addition, economical, fast moving, volume reaches 2.5-5 m3, can work round the clock. In smaller communities where there are no access roads, capacity cesspools small, apply autoback, is filled with a pump or manually by scoops (use cherpakova autopackage undesirable).
Liquid sewage neutralized in the fields of sanitation, or result in the discharge stations. Field sanitation are intended for the neutralization of liquid sewage with use of the soil's ability to cleanse itself. Have them no closer than 1 km from residential buildings to leeward, not on dry flooded areas with groundwater table, not closer than 1.5 m from the surface of the earth. Fill produce uniformly: 10 m2 soil pour 1 m3 of the liquid. After drying occurs zapaska. During the summer, the area pour 2-3 times and leave until the following spring. In winter the area is poured once on a previously ploughed soil and spring necessarily plowed, and then sow the fodder grass, and the next year - grain cereals and horticultural crops (crop of vegetables consumed raw are not allowed). Each field pour 1 time in 3 years. The field area of excreta disposal is calculated with three crop rotation 1.8 ha per 1000, while chetyrehspalnyh - 2.4 hectares per 1000 In the fields of sanitation should be piped water or a well, space for washing of transport, premises for business (a shower, a place for meals and other).
Drain station is placed on the sewer collectors. They are intended for reception and descent liquid waste into the sewage system. Arranged in the city, in places where there is dense apartment houses, at a distance of not less than 300 M. On the discharge stations are arranged channels for receiving and release sewage into the sewer on the side of the channel - 2-3 corridor, where imported drum or tank trucks.
The fighting flies achieved rapid zapasnoy sewage and the use of disinfectants. Around the fields sanitation should be band landscaping.
Violation of sanitary requirements for sanitation can contribute to the spread of infections and invasions. For prevention requires observance of measures on labour protection of employees excreta disposal: regular inspection survey on helminth - and germ-carriers, sanitary inspection rooms, provide clothing, observance of rules of personal hygiene. Demolished each locality should be under constant sanitary supervision. Cm. also the Cleaning of populated areas.