The lung atelectasis

The lung atelectasis is a condition in which the pulmonary bubbles whole lung or part does not contain air or contain it in small quantity, and are represented spasimira. There are lung atelectasis congenital and acquired. On the mechanism of development identified atelectasis caused by compression of light from the outside (for example, as a result of accumulation in the cavity of pleural fluid, blood, or air), and atelectasis due to violations of bronchial obstruction. The latter may be caused by obstruction of the bronchi from the inside (endobronchial obstructive atelectasis) or compression of the bronchus from the outside (extrarenally compression atelectasis).
Congenital lung atelectasis - light or some parts are from the birth of the child is not breathing. Observed in stillborn or weak, are not viable, breathing shallowly children who died shortly after birth, and when the damage to the child's breathing centre during delivery, or when the blockage of the respiratory tract of mucus, meconium etc.
Purchased lung atelectasis - losing in the lung alveoli, before breathing. The most frequently purchased atelectasis is developing in the following cases.
1. In exudative pleurisy (see), the hydrothorax, the pneumothorax (see) as a result of accumulation in the cavity of pleural fluid (the transudate or exudate) or air.
2. In malignant tumors of the lung in the result of the compression of the bronchus cancer.
3. At a tuberculosis of lungs in the result of the compression of the bronchus enlarged lymph nodes or due to a breakthrough in the bronchus caseous masses obstruction of the lumen of the bronchus.
4. Chronic pneumonia in connection with reactive lymph nodes of the root of the lung or sclerotic bronchitis.
5. When hardening bronchus foreign bodies.
6. Postoperative pulmonary atelectasis (usually after operations on the organs of abdominal and thoracic cavity) occurs due to blockage of bronchial mucus in violation of the drainage function of bronchi in the background of shallow breathing.
7. The lung atelectasis the wounded due to compression of the lung blood, shed abroad in the pleural cavity, or air with traumatic pneumothorax, when the blockage of bronchial mucus or aspirated vomit on the background of shallow breathing and suppressed kashlevogo reflex, at injury bronchi and other
Some forms of lung atelectasis may long be asymptomatic. With massive atelectasis disorders can occur external respiration, manifested in shortness of breath and cyanosis. In the initial stages percussion over the place atelectasis acquires tympanic shade. With the progression of the process the sound becomes blunted, with full losing the alveoli is stupid. Breath over the place atelectasis bronchial (bronchial patency) or no (if corking). Around the plot atelectasis may develop compensatory emphysema. The lung atelectasis is often complicated by pneumonia and pulmonary suppuration.
In the diagnosis of lung atelectasis great role is played by x-ray examination using bronhografii and tomography (see)and bronchoscopy. In doubtful cases with suspected lung cancer shows a sample (diagnostic) thoracotomy (see).
In children, lung atelectasis most often occurs when the whooping cough. Diagnosis is difficult because usually it is not observed changes in the General condition and auscultatory data. Diagnosed radiographically.
Treatment of lung atelectasis is to eliminate its causes, treatment of pneumonia, which the lung atelectasis in most cases, complicated, and respiratory failure (see).
Prevention of lung atelectasis patients in the postoperative period and wounded is to prevent aspiration of vomitus, periodic change of body position and conduct of breathing exercises within the scope permitted by the status of the patient, the appointment cans, salt and bronchodilators.

The lung atelectasis (from the Greek. ateles is incomplete and ektasis - stretch - losing lung tissue, accompanied by her bezvestnogo (incomplete losing designated by the term dialects). Allocate a total lung atelectasis, covering all easy, and alopecia. Form distinguish A. L. corresponding structural units of the lung, and A. L. with planar (discoid) form.
In the norm there are physiological lung atelectasis - scattered achinskie tricks incomplete spadenia alveoli due to temporary disable them from the act of breathing. Among pathological A. L. there are congenital and acquired.
Congenital A. L. - not breathing from birth lung area - observed in stillborn or unviable children, and injuries of the respiratory centre, the obstruction of the airway by meconium, fertile waters, in violation of the circulation in a small circle of blood. Massive atelectasis lungs in newborns incompatible with life, focal can kill or to persist for many decades, becoming non-pigmented scars.
Acquired A. L. - losing alveoli, before participating in the breath - is divided into: a) obturator, b) functional and in) compression (collapse), i.e., atelectasis caused by compression of the lung. Obstructive A. L. caused by obstruction of the bronchi swelling, mucus, exudate, foreign body when intubation, tracheotomy, sometimes when mediastinal lymphadenitis or the gate of light and so on, Often squeezed srednedushevoj bronchus (srednedushevoj syndrome). Functional A. L. bronchospasm occurs when a reflex of origin in case of injuries, operations in the neck, chest and abdomen, sometimes develops reflexive, symmetric obstructive A. L. on the opposite side. Compression lung atelectasis due sdavlennoy light from the outside stuck in the pleural cavity with a liquid, gas or tumor, parasitic cyst mediastinum, aneurysm.
In the development of lung atelectasis play an active role serverelement mechanisms, namely the reduction of smooth muscles of the lung. Therefore, A. L. expressed unevenly among spasica fields there are pockets of swelling. In occurrence with the latter acting as collateral breath, the most pronounced in subpleural departments lower lobes, where the detected patterns, ensuring collateral aeration (Intersegment bridges, trabecular structure acini, Sabaudia from two of the bronchial tubes). In recent time in the development A. L. great role of physico-chemical status of a special, built of lipoproteins and enveloping the walls of the alveoli film that by changing its surface tension eases the flow of air in the alveoli. The suppression of this film properties leads to lung atelectasis.