Atherosclerosis is a disease in which there is a change of the structure of the walls of arteries and aorta, resulting in narrowing of the lumen of the vessel. As a result of deteriorating blood supply of the organs and body parts, which are the vessels to nourish.

artery affected by atherosclerosis
Fig. 3. Gaps normal arteries and arteries atherosclerotic: A - normal artery, B - artery affected by atherosclerosis, arterial thrombosis; 1 - the artery wall; 2 - connective tissue, 3 - fatty plaque, 4 - clot

As a result of violations of the mechanisms regulating the metabolism in the blood increases cholesterol and other lipids, which together with salts of calcium deposited in the inner lining of the vessel; in the future in this place grows dense connective tissue. The result is reduced elasticity of the vessel wall, it becomes dense, and the inner shell loses its smoothness, becomes rough. Such sklerozirovanie vessels are easier to break (especially with the increase in blood pressure due to hypertension) and give hemorrhage. The roughness of the inner lining artery and articulation of plaques in combination with clotting disorders can cause the formation of a blood clot, which makes the vessel impassable (Fig. 3). So atherosclerosis may be accompanied by a number of complications: myocardial infarction, brain hemorrhage, gangrene of lower extremities and other
In atherosclerosis violated regulatory mechanisms, and therefore often perverted reaction from the affected vessels: instead of expanding them in response to the physical strain can come spasm that impairs blood flow and causes painful phenomena.
Depending on the localization process of the circulation of various organs. With the defeat of coronary (coronary) arteries of the heart, pain in the heart area and impaired function of the heart (for more details, see "Coronary heart disease"). At aorta, the pain behind the breastbone. Atherosclerosis of the brain cause decreased performance, headaches, heaviness in the head, dizziness, memory impairment, hearing impaired. Atherosclerosis renal artery leads to the sclerotic changes in the kidneys and raise HELL. With the defeat of arteries of the lower extremities, pain in the legs when walking (for more details, see "Obliterating diseases of the arteries").
The emergence of the disease and its development to the so-called risk factors (peculiarities of the organism's internal environment and living conditions), which include: increased content in the blood lipids, high blood pressure, obesity, diabetes, adverse heredity, excessive content in the diet of fat and cholesterol, physical inactivity, Smoking, psycho-emotional stress.
Severe complications and destruction caused by atherosclerosis, difficult to treat. So to start treatment is necessary as early as possible, at the initial manifestations of the disease, especially as it usually develops gradually and may long time to run almost asymptomatic.
Therapeutic physical culture stimulate the nervous and endocrine systems, regulating all kinds of metabolism. Therefore, the therapeutic effect of physical exercise in atherosclerosis is primarily manifested in their positive effect on metabolism. Studies conducted on animals, prove conclusively that the systematic studies normalize lipid in the blood. Numerous monitoring of patients with atherosclerosis and the elderly also suggest lowering cholesterol in the blood after a course of physiotherapy often to the normal level.
The application of physical exercises, providing special therapeutic action, for example, improves peripheral circulation, promotes restoration of motor-visceral relations. In the result of the reaction of the cardiovascular system are adequate, fewer perverse effects. Special exercise improves blood flow to the area or organ, meals are violated as a result of the defeat of vessels. Systematic studies are developing collateral circulation. Under influence of physical loads, normal overweight.
In early signs of atherosclerosis, and the presence of risk factors for prevention of further development of the disease it is necessary to eliminate those, which can be affected. Therefore, the effective exercise, diet with reduced foods rich in cholesterol and fat, Smoking cessation.
The main tasks of medical physical culture for the prevention of atherosclerosis are: boosting metabolism, improving the nervous and endocrine regulation of exchange processes, improve the functionality of the cardiovascular and other systems of the body. To practice fits most physical exercises: long walks, gymnastics, swimming, skiing, running, rowing, sports games. Especially useful exercises that are performed in aerobic mode, when the need of the working muscles oxygen is fully met.
Physical activity are dosed depending on the functional state of the patient. Usually they first meet the loads used for patients referred to the I functional class. Then it is recommended to continue studies in a group health club runners or independently 3-4 times a week 1-2 hours They must be permanent, as atherosclerosis occurs as a chronic illness, and physical exercise warn its further development.
When expressed atherosclerosis in therapeutic gymnastics should include exercises General nature, alternating with exercises for small groups of muscles and breathing exercises. At insufficiency of brain blood supply is necessary to limit the movement associated with a sudden change of position of the head (fast and tilt the body and head).