Atherosclerosis

  • Medical gymnastics in atherosclerosis
  • Atherosclerosis is a chronic systemic disease characterized by the defeat of arteries of large and medium calibre.
    Atherosclerosis is a common diseasethat occurs mainly in people over the age of 40-45 years, in some cases, atherosclerosis begins in youth age. Atherosclerosis, affecting the most important in life against vessels of heart and brain, is one of the main causes of the loss of disability and premature death.
    The etiology of atherosclerosis is not determined for sure. The value of infringements of nervous regulation that leads to changes in the lipid (especially cholesterol and lipid-protein metabolism. Atherosclerosis is more common in countries where the population consumes a large amount of animal fats and proteins. In large cities atherosclerosis is more common than in rural areas. Predisposing role of endocrine and metabolic diseases: diabetes, underactive thyroid, obesity and gout. Atherosclerosis in women occurs 3-4 times less frequently than men. To atherosclerosis inclined people leading a sedentary lifestyle. Also noted is an inherited predisposition.
    The pathogenesis of atherosclerosis is unclear. The disease associated with the violation of local (tissue) exchange in the wall of the arteries that occurs under the influence of the nervous-reflexive, hemodynamic, and endocrine factors.
    Pathological changes in atherosclerosis localized mainly in the large arteries in the aorta, coronary, cerebral, renal arteries and the large arteries of the extremities. Atherosclerotic plaques are clusters of lipids (morphological called the defeat of the arteries atheromatosis). In the future, lipid weight, elements of the arterial wall decay generating pasty mass, containing cholesterol and fatty acids, droplets of neutral fat, pieces of elastic and collagen fibers. Atherosclerotic plaque is in the lumen of the vessel and has a yellowish color. Gradually the number of plaques increases, vascular wall unevenly thickens, is a dense. The plaques are deposited salts of calcium, which gives artery greater density. Atherosclerotic plaques are often subjected to decomposition with the formation of ulcers; pasty detritus enters the lumen of the vessel, which can lead to embolism (see). In connection with the violation of the integrity of the inner lining of the vascular wall and the changing character of the blood flow in the area of atherosclerotic plaques often produce blood clots and there thrombosis (see).
    The clinical picture. For many years atherosclerosis can develop without symptoms.
    Painful syndromes that occur in atherosclerosis, depend on the destruction of those or other vascular regions - aorta coronary, cerebral vessels, arteries limbs, etc. With coronary atherosclerosis occurs picture coronary insufficiency, may develop angina (see), myocardial infarction (see), atherosclerotic cardiosclerosis (see), cardiac failure. Sometimes coronary atherosclerosis long time runs hidden and can only be detected by electrocardiography, especially after application of functional tests, if vectorcardiography (see) or ballistocardiography (see).
    Atherosclerosis of the aorta for the first time revealed the fifth or sixth decade of life. Sometimes even severe forms asymptomatic. Clinical symptoms depend on the localization process. Atherosclerosis of the ascending aorta and its arc can occur pressure or burning pain in the chest, radiating in both hands, neck, back, upper part of the abdomen. Unlike angina, the pain kept long-term (hours to days), then amplifying, weakening. Experience the pain associated with irritation of sensitive nerve endings aortic plexus.
    In connection with decrease the elasticity of the aorta increase requirements to the work of the heart, which leads to hypertrophy of muscle of the left ventricle. In the study determined reinforced apical impulse of the heart, the offset of the left border to the left, the expansion of the stupidity of vascular bundle. Heart sounds deaf, over the aorta heard systolic murmur, rising or appearing at the raised hands (symptom Sirotinina - Kukoverov), as well as the emphasis of the second tone. Maximum arterial pressure is increased, the minimum either unchanged or slightly lowered. Radiographically aorta rectified, extended, extended, sometimes visible deposits of calcium salts.
    Atherosclerosis of abdominal aorta, usually when life is not recognized.
    Atherosclerosis. mesenteric artery causes a disturbance of blood supply to the intestine, which leads to changes in the secretory and motor functions of digestion with the advent burp, nausea, flatulence, constipation. In addition, atherosclerosis mesenteric artery may cause bouts of abdominal toad (see). When mesenteric thrombosis of arteries develop necrosis loops of intestine, bleeding, and then paralytic ileus.
    Atherosclerosis of the arteries of the brain leads to reduced health, especially mental, reduction of memory for recent events, active attention, fatigue. Patients become emotionally labile, complain of insomnia, dizziness, especially with the rapid transition from horizontal to vertical. In severe cases, atherosclerosis of cerebral vessels changing the behavior of the patient: he becomes fussy, self-centered, obsessive, picky. Developing dementia up to full degradation of the personality. Complications of atherosclerosis of cerebral arteries are violations of cerebral circulation - hemorrhage, thrombosis.
    Atherosclerosis of the renal arteries (even one of them is hypertension, often malignant course. Thrombosis renal artery hypertension develops acutely.
    Atherosclerosis of arteries of the lower extremities is manifested syndrome intermittent claudication (see Arteriosclerosis obliterans).
    Forecast for atherosclerosis depends on the period of the disease and the predominant lesion of one or another body. "Sudden death", which is the subject of forensic medicine, usually caused by atherosclerosis of the coronary arteries of the heart or cerebral vessels. Most often atherosclerosis reduce the health and disability due to the development of heart failure sclerosis and brain vessels.


    The atherosclerosis treatment should be complex. Patients with atherosclerosis with no signs of coronary insufficiency and failure heart recommended active against muscular work mode, i.e. the systematic walking, light exercises, therapeutic exercise.
    It is necessary to preserve patients with atherosclerosis from troubles and overvoltage. Smoking and reception of alcoholic drinks is prohibited. Useful intermittent treatment in sanatoriums and resorts in the area where the patient lives.
    For normalization of metabolic processes of the body plays an important role rational nutrition. It is recommended to limit the consumption of animal fats and cholesterol rich foods (brains, butter, melted butter, egg yolks, fish eggs, fatty meats and fish), salt, and easily digestible carbohydrates (sugar, confectionery), which adversely affect lipid metabolism. It is necessary to include in the diet of foods rich in the so-called lipotropic, i.e. prevents deposition of lipids, substances (cheese, well soaked herring, cod, oats, soybean, and other), vegetable oils (sunflower, corn, olive, Flaxseed, soybean, cotton, vegetables, fruits. Overweight shown fasting days (see).
    Of drugs recommended sedative (Valerian, motherwort), iodine preparations: potassium iodide (3% solution of 1 table. L. 3 times a day) or 5% iodine alcohol solution, which begin to take with 2-5 drops 2 times a day with milk after a meal and gradually increasing the dose of 1-2 drops per reception daily, lead up to 15 drops; sayodin (0.5 g 2-3 times a day). Treatment of iodine preparations conducted courses for 3-4 weeks 2-3 times a year, preferably in dry and warm months of the year, because iodine contributes to the emergence of catarrhs.
    Use products that influence lipid levels: beta-sitosterol 3 g 3-5 times a day, lecithin to 0.6 g / day, linetol 1 chain. L. 3 times a day; vitamin a (100 000 ME a day) in combination with vitamin E (100 mg a day), vitamin C 0,35 g 3 times a day, nicotinic acid (0.02 g 3 times a day). The treatment of these funds, conduct refresher courses last from 2-3 weeks to 1-2 months.
    Prevention. Regular alternation of work and rest, the systematic inclusion in the regime of the day of physical work, gymnastics, sports, quiet environment at work and at home. Of exceptional importance is the food. It is necessary to combat obesity, especially among located to the fullness. Food should be diverse, with a sufficient amount of proteins and vitamins, but limit fats and simple carbohydrates, especially in people over 40 years. In the diet should prevail dairy and vegetable food.

    Atherosclerosis (atherosclerosis) is a chronic disease characterized by systemic lesions of the arteries, is closely associated with age and metabolic changes in the tissues of the vascular wall.
    Morphologically atherosclerosis is manifested in sequential or combined development in the arterial wall two processes: pasty decay (gr. athera - gruel) and expansion of dense connective tissue (sclerosing, from the Greek. sklerosis - hardening, sealing). A. is an independent disease, mainly the elderly, which is selected from a group of other system lesions of the arteries different Genesis, United collective notion of arteriosclerosis.
    A. in some degree, there are many people, starting from 25 years of age; in the elderly its frequency and severity of strongly increasing. A. is the main mass of all diseases of circulation organs.