Athletics

athleticsathletics includes walking, running, jumping and throwing events, conducted under the special rules, in the form of sports exercises. Main of them - Jogging - affects the body's most versatile, contributing to the development of the skeletal muscles (mainly of the lower limbs), respiratory apparatus, cardiovascular system and other impacts on the body of different types of running as exercise depends on the size, distance, pace running and duration; it can be a typical activity rate (sprint - 60 - 200 m, in which muscle work maximum), exercise on speed endurance (running on average distances - 400-1500 m) or develop endurance is the ability of an organism to long the work of small intensity (long and very long distances). The walk is too endurance exercise. Jumping and throwing - speed-strength exercises, well develop speed, strength and coordination, but in comparison with Jogging and walking less effect on breathing and circulation. For all-round physical development, especially children, are important forms of athletics. Special children's classes in athletics, you can start with 10-12 years, and running only on small distances.

Athletics is one of the most mass sports, including exercises in running, walking, jumping and throwing different structure movements and effects on the body.
When sprint (60, 100 and 200 m) is committed short-term (from 6 to 30 sec.) then power and speed training maximum power. Only 18% oxygen query covered directly in the process of running; muscle prevails anaerobic glikogenoliz. After the re-runs on 100-200 m in trained athletes heart rate does not exceed 120-160 beats per minutes, breathing 30-40 minutes, maximum pressure of 150 to 170 mm RT. Art.
Jump (height, length, with a pole, triple) and throwing (spears, disk, hammer throw, shot put) also belong to speed-power exercises, they differ complex coordination structure. Autonomic changes after multiple repetitions of throwing and especially leaps closer to the observed changes in the speed race. When running on average distances (800,1500 m) - submaximal work intensity and the long-distance race (3, 5, 10 km)- the work of great intensity is maximum voltage aerobic exchange and largely anaerobic glikogenoliz. Pulse rate up to 200 beats / min or more, the breath - 54 - 66 per minute, blood pressure-up to 190-220 mm RT. Art. When running for very long (marathon) race and race walking muscle work moderate power takes place under conditions of relatively stable oxygen consumption. There has been a sharp drop in blood sugar (sometimes up to 40 mg%). After running determined relatively low shifts pulse (up to 150 to 180 beats per minutes) and blood pressure (150-180 mm RT. century) with a long recovery period.
During and after running at different distances according to telesecretary, 55 trained athletes are relatively moderate and fast transient ECG changes: increased heart rate, shortening of the R-Q and QRS-T, increase of voltage R, and So the Size of the heart after the finish running decrease. In particular tension in the women (often less prepared) significant reduction or wave inversion T3 (sometimes T2 and T3), reduction of the segment S - T extension to the R-Q and QHS-T, a decrease of voltage R-wave (Fig.); rentgenograficheskie is determined by the increase of the size of the heart.
Systematic athletics well develop breathing apparatus, as evidenced by the note in athletics high rates lung capacity, maximum arbitrary pulmonary ventilation, resistance to hypoxia. More than half of the runners on the long and very long distances observed increase in the size of the heart (hypertrophy and Tonawanda regulatory dilation); they often find also physiological bradycardia and hypotension.
Athletics is the most important section of the program in physical education in schools and complex TRP, its elements are used in General physical training in any sport, in practice health group with adults, and medical physical culture. Rationing loads in sports activities and athletics competitions are held according to age, sex and preparedness. Primary education begins at 10 to 11 years. Cm. also the Sport.

Teleelectrocardiograms, taken in the process of re-run on average distances from the well (a) and not (b) prepared sportsmen: 1 - initial data; 2 - while running.