Atmospheric electricity

Atmospheric electricity - a set of interconnected electric processes and phenomena in the atmosphere. Atmospheric electricity due to the presence in the atmosphere of electrical charges in the form of ionized molecules and atoms, and their origin is different for the lower and upper atmosphere. The mechanism of formation of ions is the removal of electrons from neutral molecules and partly dissociation them under the action of ionizing factors. In the lower atmosphere is the emanations of radioactive substances in the soil, cosmic particles in the upper - impact corpuscular particles and short-wave solar radiation. As a result of joint processes at all levels of the atmosphere electric field is found, the electrical conductivity of the air and electric currents.
At the height of 2 m, the electric field is 120 V/m and decreases with altitude; the conductivity is determined as the environment and the concentration and mobility of light ions, the x 10-6 El. senior units, density vertical conduction current i-10-16 and/cm2. Above the troposphere field strength and conductivity increases. In addition to the lungs, there are medium and heavy ions, formed by the precipitation of light ions and neutral molecules of water or aerosols. In this layer the concentration of light ions is 700-800 1 cm3, and medium-and especially heavy - ten times more. Unipolarity (ratio of positive to negative ions) in clear weather is 1,2 - 1,3, increasing in mountain conditions and when the surf; spraying water in mountain rivers and in the vicinity of the waterfalls unipolarist ranges from 0,2-0,25. These and other electrical phenomena are used in medicine as in natural conditions and in a specially constructed vehicles (see Hydroaeroions).
Physico-chemical processes similar to those observed in the upper atmosphere, are in the lower atmosphere, causing except education molecular positive and negative ions, even atomic - neutral and charged particles of oxygen and their compounds (Oh,Oh, About3 and N2O); this may explain the appearance in the lower atmosphere certain concentrations of ozone and nitrous oxide - active elements, not indifferent for an organism of the person. Cm. also the Atmosphere.