Nuclear industry

The nuclear industry (occupational health). The nuclear industry includes enterprises extracting and processing radioactive ores, as well as nuclear reactors, radiochemical and some other enterprises and a group of special research institutions.
The main production of harm of the nuclear industry are the sources of radioactive radiation and the possibility of environmental pollution by radioactive substances (see)- Basic hygienic principles of protection from radioactive radiation sources and radioactive substances are:
1) sealing operations (work in special chambers and boxes);
2) mechanization and automation of operations (use of remote instrumentation that copies of the handles, and so on); 3) protection from ionizing radiation with special screens (see Antiradiation protection); 4) the rational layout of the premises; 5) finish surfaces of rooms and equipment of special materials (stainless steel, plastic); 6) the use of individual means of protection; 7) the observance of rules of work in the nuclear industry; 8) continuous monitoring (see) over the working conditions; 9) control over the collection and removal of radioactive waste (see); 10 timely carrying out of works on decontamination (see) equipment, overalls and premises.
Exposure working in the nuclear industry is allowed not more than 5 REM per year.
Working in the nuclear industry should be held periodically medical examinations and to start working in subsequent production training.

Nuclear industry - an industry on receiving, handling and use of radioactive substances.
Adverse factor in the production and enrichment of radioactive ores and obtaining of uranium, thorium is internal exposure arising from the ingestion of radioactive substances in the form of gases and aerosols. External (for beta and gamma) radiation while slightly. In nuclear reactors can occur external radiation (gamma rays, neutrons of different energies and partially beta-rays). Receipt in the air of radioactive gases and aerosols is low. In the processing of irradiated and other materials of high activity possible, both internal and external irradiation of the body. Perform various operations with radioactive materials can cause contamination of premises, equipment, skin and clothing.
Some structures may be the source of pollution of water bodies, soils, atmospheric air radioactive substances. The range of the latter, and their behavior in the environment depend on the properties of radio, the physical state of the waste, as well as the state of the environment in which they are received. The volume of emissions is determined by the technical level of the equipment used, the efficiency of treatment facilities and other
In the construction of atomic industry enterprises large hygienic value has a correct choice of a place. It is also necessary to provide a complex of protective measures ensuring safe working conditions in respect not only of radiation exposure, and other operating hazards. Means of radiation safety should be developed in strict accordance with the equipment necessary for this process, type and quantity of radioactive material and the conditions of their treatment.
Recreation activities aimed at reducing radiation exposure can be divided into two groups: 1) measures of protection from external and internal exposure and 2) prevent contamination of premises, equipment, clothing and skin. Protection against external radiation of gamma and x-rays and neutrons provides shielding of radiation sources absorbing materials (lead, concrete, cast iron, water and others). The thickness of the layer of biological protection is determined by calculation on the universal tables or nomograms considering the magnitude of the activity of the source. In parallel are used the factor of time and distance (the radiation intensity will decrease proportionally to the square of the distance from the source of radiation). Affordable and effective remote management tools. To protect personnel from internal exposure requires the implementation of a more complex set of activities. It is necessary to provide rational layout of the buildings and premises, finishing with respect to the nature and volume of work done. In most industrial buildings it is necessary to provide zonal principle, i.e. the division of premises on the "clean" and "dirty" zone. Most
often used treasonably the principle of planning. In the first, the most "dirty"zone are the main pollution sources and facilities; as a rule, the period of work in this area is not available for staff. The second zone - premises repair and transportation of contaminated equipment, waste disposal, loading and unloading of radioactive materials - zone periodic stay working. The third zone is the space of continuous service. Here are all the funds management and control; this zone is practically pure. Between zones, provided certain sanitary regime. Clean rooms from dirty separate sanitary inspection or sanitary lock depending on the activity of the materials used and the volume of work with them.
Special attention should be paid to the choice of materials used for flooring, walls, furniture, equipment. Huge hygienic importance reliable sealing mechanisms and communications, mechanization of manual operations, the equipment of their remote and automatic control and effective local and General exchange ventilation.
Along with General prevention activities much attention is paid to individual means of protection. On repair work are newmoslem, pressure suits with forced air supply. For respiratory protection use different respirator with filter material both disposable and more durable. For the timely and effective treatment of skin from dirt arranged San. the throughput capacity, and for decontamination PPE - special laundries.
In the system of radiation safety is important the organization of clear monitoring, which is carried out by remote systems and portable devices. It is necessary to control the levels of penetrating radiation, and the degree of radioactive contamination of air, different surfaces, premises and equipment, skin and clothing. Also carries out the control of activity of liquid and solid waste, soil, etc. where staff are exposed to external irradiation gamma, beta rays, x-rays or neutrons, held individual dosimetry with fotokasten or dosimeters (see Dosimetry). Maximum permissible dose (see) external gamma-irradiation working - 0.1 R a week. While exposure to gamma rays, neutrons, radioactive aerosols and gases total dose should not exceed 0.1 REM per week. For recruits set of preliminary and periodic medical examinations. Cm. Radioactive waste.