Atropine

Atropine (Atropinum; list a) - alkaloidcontained in the plant of the family Solanaceae (deadly nightshade, henbane, a dope). Atropine reduces tone smooth muscle bodies (bronchi, the organs of the abdominal cavity), suppresses the secretion of salivary, gastric and sweat glands, expands the pupils, ucemet intimate reductions. In medical practice it is used atropine sulphate (Atropini sulfas). It is used with a stomach ulcer and duodenal ulcer, spasm of the abdominal cavity, bronchial asthma, aetiology, to improve pupil for diagnostic and therapeutic purposes and as an antidote for poisoning cholinomimetic (acetylcholine, karbaholina, with pilocarpine and other), anticholinesterase (by physostigmine, a proserin , and others) substances with morphine and other analgesic drugs.
Designate atropine inside and under the skin: the highest single dose of 0.001 g daily 0,003, In ophthalmic practice appoint 0.5-1% solution (eye drops or ointments). When applying as antidote atropine injected in the form of 0.1% solution.
In hypersensitivity, as well as in the case of small overdose in patients in the application of atropine may experience dry mouth, dilated pupils, palpitations. Some patients may develop Qatar conjunctiva. When these symptoms the drug should be discontinued. Contraindications of atropine with glaucoma, expressed violations functions of the cardiovascular system.
Method of production: powder, 1% ointment, 0.1% solution in sealed to 1 ml Cm. also Holinoliticescoe funds.

Atropine (Atropinum; list A.) - alkaloid contained in the various plants SEM. Solanaceae - Belene, the Demoiselle, the dope. In medical practice is applied atropine sulphate - A. sulfuricum. Atropine is to anticholinergic agents. It blocks m-holinoreaguye system, has a Central holinoliticski action. Atropine is used for the treatment of ulcers stomach and duodenal ulcers, spastical States (pilorospazm, bronchial asthma), to reduce the secretion of salivary, gastric and bronchial glands, with bradycardia, atrioventricular heart block, breast toad, as midriaticheskoe, when poisoning holinomimeticakih substances, anticholinesterase and analgesics. Assign inside, under the skin and locally: inside 0.00025 0.001 g 1-2 times a day; under the skin on 0,25-1 ml of 0.1% solution; intravenously (poisoning) for 0.5-1 ml of 0.1% solution. The highest single dose of 0.001, the Form of powder and ampoules to 1 ml of 0.1% solution. Cm. also Holinoliticescoe funds.
Detection of atropine in forensic chemical research. A study on the presence of atropine necessarily in forensic chemical analysis of the internal organs of the body, the contents of the stomach, parts of plants, remains of medicinal preparations etc. To isolate atropine from the research object is used removing or alcohol, vinegar of wine, or oxalic acid or acidified water at pH 2,5-3,0, followed by the extraction of organic solvent (chloroform, dichloromethane) at pH 9.5 to 11,5. The remains obtained after evaporation of organic solvent, examine: 1) in the presence of 1% HCl so-called abdelkareem reagents (solutions J2 KJ, HgJ2 b ToJ , and others); amorphous deposits are formed; 2) reaction Vitali - Morena, for which the outstanding balance of the destruction of chloroform process (better in a porcelain Cup) 2-3 times a few drops of concentrated HNO3 and evaporated on a water bath dry; dry residue is dissolved in 0.2-0.5 ml of acetone and mixed with 1-2 drops alcohol solution sodium hydroxide (or soda) - violet color. In case of positive results of this sensitive [1 mcg, Gadamer (J. Gadamer)], but nonspecific reactions conduct physiological test animal (cat).
For this part of the residue is dissolved in 2-3 drops of 1% HCl, evaporated without heating, process a few drops of water and by means of the eye dropper applied to the mucous membrane of the eye of a cat; after some time there has been an increase of the pupil. The other eye of the animal serves as a control. Microcrystal reaction to atropine - reaction with salt Reineke and bromine water. When poisoning parts of plants, the use of forensic and chemical analysis of atropine has a forensic farmakokineticescoy study.