Audiology (from lat. audio - hear and Greek. logos - doctrine - the doctrine of the hearing. Development of audiology contributed to the achievements of physiological acoustics, the development of objective methods of research of hearing using conditional reflexes, registration cochlear capabilities and currents of the brain, as well as new data on the structure of the nervous tissue snails, identified methods of histochemistry and electron microscopy. The subject of the clinical section of audiology is the study of the causes of deafness and hearing loss, development of methods of diagnostics and prevention measures. The big place is occupied with questions of influence of production factors (noise, vibration, toxic substances) on the hearing function and prevention of hearing disorders.
In connection with the development of functional ear surgery, the aim of which is to restore or improve hearing, audiology began to enter the study of the question of testimony to sluhovosstanavlivayuschie operations and the evaluation of their results. Successes A. in the differential diagnosis of lesions auditory function are the result of improving the tone and speech audiometry (see) and especially the introduction of new audiometric tests, which allows to make representation about the topic and nature of the pathological process.
Complex tasks facing audiologia in the fight against deafness and hearing loss in children of early age. For research of hearing in children proposed new objective methods of audiometry with development of conditioned reflexes, and electroencephalography. Hearing loss in children creates great difficulties in mastering regular speech. In this regard, it is necessary to develop special methods of training of children of early hearing etc. These issues are handled by a separate area A. - children A. (pedaudiology).