Autoimmune diseases

The term "autoimmune" (or autoimmune disease has been introduced in recent years on the basis of the results of experimental studies and clinical observations. For a long time it was believed that the body cannot respond to their own tissue. Ehrlich has identified the condition as a horror autotoxicus.
Burnet suggested clonal a theory to explain this state: the clone of immunocompetent cells, capable of responding to the autoantigens, disappear before the birth. It was above mentioned the role of the thymus in this process.
Currently, the existence of autouniversal is indisputable. This is proved by numerous experiments; in addition, clinical observations show that autoimmune processes in human pathology play a much greater role than assumed until recently.
It is established experimentally that some of the macromolecule, especially proteins myelinated fibers, sperm, lens, thyroid gland and other tissues, can be antigens to his own body (the list of such proteins can continue).
Proponents of immunological tolerance attach great importance anatomical isolation of certain tissues of the body. Because of this "structural code" these authorities are not registered, hence, these fabrics are not causing in the organism immunological tolerance (unlike other body tissues).
Of course, this explanation is not acceptable, as it cannot be applied to all potential autoantigens of the body.
Another theory explains the state of tolerance body's own tissues phenomenon immunological paralysis. It was noted that the continued presence in mammals any antigen causes the animal organism immunological reaktivnost to that antigen. This condition is temporary. From this point of view it is possible to explain the state of immunological tolerance in animals with injections of antigen from spleen tissue method Medawar and employees.
At present, due to lack of knowledge of the complexity of all the observed phenomena allergies in clinic and experiment cannot be explained by any of the existing theories.
Every kind of animal and each individual within the species has its "antigenic" person, unique; it allows to distinguish one species from another, one kind of animal from another. Immune reactions occur in the body due to differences antigenic properties of the tissues of the body and enter into him substances. The nature and intensity of these reactions depend largely on the structure of the antigen. Antigenicity of the substance is determined by the ratio of the structure of foreign substances and autologous tissue of the body to which you have immunological tolerance of the host body. Immune response the weaker, the more antigenic affinity for alien tissues and autologous tissue of the host body.
It should be noted that the tissues of the body not remain absolutely unchanged throughout life. In the tissues may disappear certain proteins and enzymes. In addition, under the influence of various viral and infectious agents, certain metabolic processes in the tissues of the body very slightly change their quality. This, however, is enough to change their antigenic structure. What is the threshold of such tissue changes that cause autoimmune reactions? This essentially is the boundary between normal and pathological condition, between health and disease.

  • Experimental data
  • Autoimmune diseases clinic