Autoinfection

Autoinfection - literally-infection, that is, a disease caused by a pathogen that was previously in the body in a non-pathogenic form, or was unable to overcome the body's defenses. The emergence of autoinfection depends on the ratio between the virulence of the pathogen and the state of protective mechanisms and the reactivity of the organism. So, usually on the skin, mucous membranes contain a large number of microorganisms that are not detrimental. However, in violation of the barrier function of the skin and mucous membranes mechanical, thermal and chemical influences these conditionally pathogenic microorganisms may become agents of diseases. Autoinfection possible when motility disorder tubular organs, causing microorganisms can spread from ordinary their habitats in the departments having in the normal conditions of relative sterility (for example, rising infection of the urinary tract, or infection of the gallbladder and bile ducts of the liver due to biliary dyskinesia). An important role in the rise of autoinfection are violations of trophism and blood supply of tissues, which results in reduction of their resilience. The emergence of autoinfection easier when you decrease the body resistance, caused by vitamin deficiencies, infectious diseases, endocrine disorders (for example, hard furunculosis in diabetes), ionizing radiation. One of the ways of development of autoinfection is lymphogenous or hematogenous spread of the pathogen of the seats of "dormant infection" (carious teeth, chronic tonsillitis and others).
Autoinfection processes usually occur on the type of purulent, chronic catarrhal or phlegmonously lesions. Autoinfection may be the cause of many serious illnesses (appendicitis, holangit, chronic interstitial pneumonia, pleurisy, peritonitis , etc.,).
Treatment autoinfection processes provides for specific antimicrobial therapy (antibiotics, chemotherapy and other), as well as activities aimed at the mobilization of protective forces of an organism (vitamin therapy, autohemotherapy, and so on). To prevent autoinfection, in addition to the General stimulating therapy, necessary readjustment possible foci of infection (tonsillectomy, treatment or removal of carious teeth and so on).

Autoinfection (from the Greek. autos - himself pozdnee. infectio - infection) - literally-infection. The term "infection" refers only to the penetration of the agent in the host organism and the subsequent interaction between them (A. F. Bilibin, and P. Rudnev). Under autoinfection usually understand the disease caused by a pathogen that was before this body in non-pathogenic form or unable to overcome the immune forces of organism. This term often refers to the transfer of infectious origin in the body from one source to another.
The emergence of autoinfection depends on the ratio between virulence and pathogenicity of the agent, on the one hand, and the state of protective mechanisms and reactivity of the owner, on the other. In normal conditions on the surface of the skin and mucous membranes of the respiratory and urinary tract and gastrointestinal tract vegetates a large number of different microorganisms, among which as possible sources of autoinfection of key importance coccal (especially Staphylococcus) and some rod forms (mainly Escherichia coli and Proteus). Living on the skin or mucous membranes long time, they don't have on the host organism harmful influence and are commensals and sometimes symbionts (see Symbiosis). However, under the influence of certain factors these conditionally pathogenic microorganisms may become agents of a number of serious diseases.
The character and peculiarities of the factors that create the possibility A., are not well understood. Frequent cause of autoinfection is damage to the mechanical, physical and chemical exposure of skin or mucous membranes, resulting in a broken inherent barrier function, and the causative agent, getting into new habitats acquires the ability to cause disease. A. possible especially in children of the first months of life due to unfinished development of the body and imperfection of protective mechanisms. Cause maybe and disruption of normal motility of tubular organs and excretory tract that causes the spread of conditionally pathogenic microorganisms from the places of their habitat in the departments, with a relative sterility. For example, if dyskinesia biliary tract, the intestinal microflora may come into the gallbladder and bile ducts of the liver and cause inflammation.
Important in the development of autoinfection have circulatory disorders and nervous trophic skin, mucous membranes and tissues of hollow organs, connected with the external environment. It violates not only barrier function of surface formations, but also dramatically reduces the resistance of tissues. Among the conditions conducive to the development A., plays an important role in the reduction of total body resistance, drop his immune forces, caused by a variety of reasons: avitaminosises, infectious diseases (for example, somatogenne gangrene caused by measles, caused by microbes fotospuredee Association), heavy infringements of a metabolism in a number of endocrine diseases (for example, hard furunculosis in diabetes), exposure to ionizing radiation, etc., In some cases, the cause autoinfection process is a violation of the integrity of the internal organs, having the message with the external environment; live microorganisms into the internal cavities of the body (for example, ulcer perforation gastric or duodenal ulcers with the arrival of their contents into the abdominal cavity and the development of peritonitis; break lung tissue with the emergence of purulent effusion). One of the ways of occurrence of autoinfection is lymphogenous or hematogenous spread of the pathogen of the seats of "dormant infection" (for example, the spread of Mycobacterium tuberculosis from seemingly stalled lesions in other organs or throughout the body).
Autoinfection processes are, as a rule, by type of purulent, chronic catarrhal or phlegmonously defeats and often threatening complication of the underlying disease. Especially it is necessary to consider the possibility A. if different erosions and ulcers (including due to malignant neoplasms), dystrophic lesions of the skin and mucous membranes, as well as for operational interventions in people with certain infectious lesions. Therefore, prevention of autoinfection and the fight against them must be in sight of the doctor even in those cases, when the primary disease is not contagious nature.
Autoinfection processes, apparently, are the basis of many serious diseases: appendicitis, cholangitis, cholecystitis, chronic interstitial pneumonia with bronchiectasis, pleurisy and peritonitis and purulent pyelonephritis, furunculosis, etc.
Treatment autoinfection processes is determined by the type of pathogen, localization and character of destruction.