The autopsy

the autopsy women (autopsy)Autopsy (synonym: section, autopsy) - study of the corpse in order to study the structure of the body, determine changes in organs and tissues, and also to determine the cause of death. It is customary to distinguish between anatomical, pathological and forensic autopsy (see below). The autopsy are of great importance in the study of the problems of thanatology (the doctrine of death), epidemiology, as well as in the teaching of medical disciplines.
Anatomical dissection produced in the departments of anatomy for studying the structure of human body.
Deaths in health facilities customarily pathoanatomical autopsy, which is regulated by the instruction on the procedure of autopsies in medical institutions. The autopsy carried out, as a rule, not earlier than two hours after the establishment of death. Conducting autopsies physicians-pathologists in specially equipped premises (sectional halls) departments of pathological anatomy and pathology departments of medical institutions. The purpose of opening - establishment of the basic disease, complications and concomitant diseases, as well as the cause of death. An autopsy is possible to judge the rightness of diagnosis and carried out medical activities, which is important to improve the diagnostic and treatment work.
Opening precedes the description of all medical documents relating to the deceased. Autopsy use sectional set of tools. A pathologist and help staff to wear rubber gloves, Bathrobe, armlets and apron. The deaths of especially dangerous infections or in the presence of the corpse hazardous to health of the physician and the persons present at the opening, substances (radioactive, S, and so on) use special costumes. After opening the corpses of people who died of especially dangerous infections, all persons that were in the section, are subjected to sanitary treatment; the location, where was carried out the autopsy, and the coffin with the body of the deceased - wet disinfection. Body relatives are.
Opening preceded by an external examination; note the shape, nutrition, growth, body weight and the condition of the skin, pay attention to the cadaver stiffness, cadaveric spots, wounds, ulcers, tumors, etc.
Then proceed to the autopsy. To do this, use different cuts of soft tissues (direct, Lesha, Fisher and combined). The chest cavity open by dissection rib cartilage near their passage into the bone (Fig. ). Examining the peritoneal, pleural and pericardial cavity, noted the presence of binding sheets serous membranes, effusion, the location of the bodies, and so on, opening the skull produce incision of soft tissues from ear to ear and their detachment to the front, then saw the skull horizontally and remove the top of the skull. To retrieve and the opening of the spinal cord should be cut back the arms of the vertebrae.
At the opening their internal organs examine on the spot, then remove from the corpse in the sequence of the bodies of the neck, chest and abdominal cavity, and retroperitoneal space and pelvis. The urogenital system sometimes emit separate complex, in some cases, a single set extract all the internal organs.
Retrieved bodies and complex organs thoroughly examine, define their size, weight, color and surface condition, then they are studied after the appropriate sections. Of organs and tissues taking pieces for histological study and material for bacteriological, serological, biochemical studies.
After opening the bodies of the dead body is placed back in the cavity, sew cuts, the corpse washed and dressed. During or after the autopsy Protocol are in the descriptive part of which is objectively record detected at autopsy changes. Are also pathoanatomical diagnosis and epicrisis. The diagnosis is the essence of the detected changes described briefly, pathological terms, in accordance with the course of the basic disease process complications and comorbidities. In postmortem report present the results of data comparison history and materials showdown with all additional research. At the end of the epicrisis give a conclusion about the mechanism and causes of death.
The autopsy forensic is in all cases of violent death (homicide, suicide, accident), suspected it; when sudden and unexpected deathoccurred not in the hospital; in cases where the cause of death is not clear, with doubts about the correctness of the treatment of the deceased. A forensic autopsy is made only under the condition of a decision by the bodies of investigation or inquiry, and the court decision. Dying in hospitals in the first days after receipt with an unknown diagnosis produce a forensic autopsy.
When forensic autopsy establish the cause of death, the time it occurred, the presence in the body of alcohol, and decide other questions depending on the particular circumstances of the case.
At external examination of the corpse pay attention to the clothes, mark cadaveric spots, stiffness, fever, putrid phenomenon, when the damage is precisely indicated their location, nature and installed than they could be caused by blunt, pricking or cutting items, firearms, motor vehicles, and so on).
The unidentified corpses in detail record all individual characteristics. Parts of organs and body fluids can be taken for histological, judicial-chemical and other laboratory studies.
After the autopsy of the corpse make the act, or an opinion in which forensic medical expert gives answers to the questions contained in the resolution on the appointment of the evaluation (see Documentation medical, forensic).