Automobile injury in a collision

During collision the front of the car with the body of a man initial shock often have lower the centre of gravity of the body, resulting he falls down on the hood of the car. Thus there are the lesions that are usually located on the trunk, head and upper extremities on the primary side collision. If the primary strike near the centre of gravity or above it, man discards forward and in the fall he hits the ground; the formation damage that is most often localized on the head, torso and upper limbs (Fig. 37).


Fig. 37. The direction of the fall of the body depending on hitting different parts of a vehicle.

The collision of the body acquires a velocity close to the speed of movement of the car. Because, as a rule, oblique shock the body receives the rotational motion around its longitudinal axis. Drop the body forward (or more to the side), as a rule, is connected with the subsequent possible collisions wheels on the victim. Sometimes the rotation of the body around its longitudinal axis at the time of its fall from a blow by car leads to the fact that the victim falls to the ground the same side of the body, which was damaged in a collision. In these cases, the damage due to hitting the road surface as though "overflowing" on damage caused by a blow from a parts car.
Comminuted and comminuted fractures of the bones of the skull may occur when hitting his head on the side of the car, and in the time drop body and hit his head on the ground. Their localization is rather various and depends on the stage of occurrence of damage. More often they are localized in the temporal-parietal and parietal-occipital areas of the head, at least - in the skull. Subdural hemorrhages are diffuse and limited. Diffuse meet more often and take a significant surface of the brain. Limited localized in a place of application of force (respectively the place of fracture or crack). Epidural hemorrhage occur less frequently. Damage of the brain appear in the place of the direct application of force in the field of protivoparaz. Macroscopically they appear in the form of focal hemorrhages in the cortex and white matter of the brain.
During the initial shock at the rear surface of the body's head leans back sharply. Quite typical is damage to the cervical spine (due to a sharp bend or be careful). In some cases, find gaps atlanticcitycasino joints and ligaments between I and II of the cervical vertebra. At the same time can disrupt the integrity oblong and spinal cord. There fractures of the code and the base of the skull from a blow on the side of the vehicle (usually on the hood), as well as damage to the brain tissue.
Rib fractures are characterized by the following features: they are multiple, private, are unilaterally on the side or back surface of the chest one or two anatomical lines. At the time of initial impacts arise both local and structural rib fractures. In the fall of a body in the car or when you drop and drop it on the ground are formed more often structural rib fractures. The nature and location of fractures largely depend on the size of external influence, place of application of force, the shape and size of damage of the vehicle, the elasticity of the chest and the nature of the service.
Fractures of the pelvis, normally closed, arise at the moment of impact parts of a vehicle or during the next fall, and the impact of a body on the ground. When struck by a moving parts of the car in front of the body fractures occur pubic and sciatic bones. In terms of impact with a lateral direction of the force injury localized on one side, occupying an area greater trochanter of the femur or the iliac crest.
In General in nature and in particular the degree of damage depends on the speed of the car at the moment of collision with the human body.
At the collision of a vehicle with a person, there are different injuries of thoracic and abdominal cavity, and trauma can be different. These injuries are the result of shaking body. Damage from direct impact localized usually on the surfaces of internal organs, which were addressed to the place of application of force. The most commonly injured lungs, liver, spleen, kidneys, observed hemorrhages under the epicardium, more frequently, at the confluence of the inferior Vena cava, sometimes tears pericardium. In parenchymatous organs can detect bleeding in a rope breaks and even break, podkopchenny damage organs.
Violations of the integrity of the bone of the thigh and lower leg encounter at the time of initial impacts of the protruding parts such as bumpers, tow hook and other moving vehicle, and their localization depends on human growth and height of this extension (Fig. 38). Such fractures are formed as a result of a sharp one-time traumatic action of a force applied in the transverse direction to the longitudinal axis of the bone, and are all signs of damage from exposure of blunt objects. It should be borne in mind that morphologically similar fractures occur due to cross moving the wheel of a car through the calf or thigh. About the direction of external influence and moving of a body of a victim from a kick to the front of the car in some cases can be judged on the basis of analysis of spiral fractures of the long bones of the lower extremities. An important place is occupied by the peculiarities of bone fractures of the pelvis, and the nature trails sliding on the heel of the Shoe, especially the support leg.
Fig. 38. The mechanism of formation of fractures of long bones at the shock of the projecting part of the car.