Axerophthol (Axerophtholum; synonym.: vitamin A, Retinolum; list B) found in animal fats, egg yolks. In vegetable products (carrots, lettuce, black currant and others) contains carotene, the provitamin a, from which the body produces vitamin A. In medical practice medications contain axerophthol natural origin (fish oil), and synthetic axerophthol (axerophthol acetate and Palmach). Daily need in axerophthol for adults and children age 7 and above 1.5 mg; for pregnant and nursing women 2 mg (1 mg with 3300 ME).
Apply axerophthol when the ratio of axerophthol, skin diseases (the keratoses, parapsoriasis , and others) and the eyes (pigmentary retinal degeneration and others). Therapeutic daily doses of axerophthol from 10 000 to 100 000 ME. The highest single dose for adults 50 000 ME; highest daily - 100 000 ME. Apply axerophthol inside. For therapeutic purposes, oil solutions, axerophthol acetate or palmata (in capsules) also introduce intramuscularly. Externally solutions axerophthol in the oil used in the treatment of burns, wounds and Britain. To use large doses of axerophthol only under supervision of a physician. Cm. also Vitamins.

Vitamin a and carotene. Vitamin a is soluble in fats and is found only in foods of animal origin. In plant products are only provitamin a-carotene, which the body converts into vitamin A.
The only source of vitamin a are fats of animal origin. Fat extracted from the liver of some marine fish (cod, halibut, redfish and other) and marine mammals (whales, dolphins, seals), is very rich in vitamin a and is used for cooking concentrates of this vitamin. In the liver freshwater fish contains vitamin A2, however, by the force of action on the organism, it is second to vitamin A.
Vitamin a is found in butter and milk. Its more of these products in autumn and in summer and less in winter and spring. Significantly lower vitamin a levels in beef fat and practically it is not in lard. No vitamin a and margarine. Therefore, the food industry produces at present, margarine, enriched with vitamin A.
A significant part of vitamin A person gets through carotene, the source of which in food are greenery, some fruit and vegetables: red carrots, green leafy cabbage, spinach, sorrel, fresh and dried apricots and other
Vitamin a is expressed either directly in weight units or so-called international units S.
One international unit vitamin corresponds to 0.3 range of this vitamin, and one the same unit for carotene is 0.6 gamma (gamma - one thousandth of a milligram). Daily human need for vitamin And not less than 1.5 milligrams, and in pregnant women, it increased to 2 milligrams.
Vitamin a is absorbed by the body better than carotene. For suction last you must have food enough fat and vegetables that contain carotene, should be well crushed. Therefore, the appointment of children as a source of vitamin a in carrot juice or raw carrot does not justify themselves: carotene contained in raw carrot, used by the body for only 5-10 percent. Lightly used and carotene boiled carrots, and only if you cook shredded carrots with oil, the absorption of carotene will increase to 50-60 percent.
Vitamin a is part of the visual purpura (rhodopsin) of the retina, providing the ability to night vision. That is why a lack of vitamin a leads to the disturbance of the night vision and the emergence of the disease, known as night blindness. Know that a healthy man, going from a bright room in a dark room within the first few seconds bad Discerner of the surrounding objects. Soon, however, a state passes, and he begins to Orient themselves in the surrounding space. In patients chicken blindness device eyes to the darkness lasts much longer than a healthy person, or does not occur at all. Changes to night vision is one of the earliest manifestations of hypovitaminosis and quickly cured under the effect of vitamin A.
The lack of vitamin a has also been impaired daytime vision and discernment flowers, especially yellow and blue.
With the development of a-hypovitaminosis may occur more severe eye injury. The cornea when it loses its luster and is covered with sores. Often comes complete blindness.
Another feature of the lack of vitamin a are changes in the skin and mucous membranes. The skin becomes rough and bumpy; clogged sebaceous glands, acne appears. Hair becomes dull, dry, brittle and more rare. Cells of superficial skin layers undergo keratinization, dry and slushayutsya. The same keratinization occurs in mucous membranes. When shedding dead skin cells from the surface of mucous formed ulcers, which serve as a "gateway" for bacteria. The penetration of microbes into the depths of the mucous membranes and causes disease: rhinitis, bronchitis and other diseases of the upper respiratory tract.
The lack of vitamin A are violated also the processes of bone growth. Because the children with A-vitamin deficiencies, lag behind in growth.
The best way to protect against the development of a-hypovitaminosis, is fish oil that is given to children during the winter months, when food is poor in vitamin A.
Vitamin a supplements are also used as a remedy for diseases of the thyroid gland, in some diseases of the skin and other
There are observation is true, they still require serious revision,- indicate that the imposition of patients with atherosclerosis of vitamin a in conjunction with vitamin E improves General condition and lowers cholesterol in the blood.
Recently, the all-Union research vitamin Institute developed a method of obtaining water-soluble vitamin that do not have an unpleasant taste and smell, peculiar to concentrate fish oil, mix well with different food products, quickly and easily absorbed, even in the absence of fat. This is especially important for people suffering from diseases of the liver, which, as we have already pointed out, impaired absorption of vitamin a and fats.