Nitric acid

Nitric acid, HNO3,strong monobasic acid. Colourless liquid; when heated and under the action of light decays with allocation of toxic nitrogen oxide, a coloring nitric acid brown. Many organic materials (straw, sawdust and others) ignite under the action of concentrated nitric acid and alcohol and turpentine explode. Applied in industry, and as a reagent in laboratories. Salts of nitric acid called nitrates. After contact with skin, eyes nitric acid causes severe burns ingestion - stomach burn of the esophagus, stomach with severe spasm and oedema of the larynx.

Nitric Acid (nitricum Acidum, HNO3) - strong monobasic acid. Colorless, fuming PA air, liquid, temperature instrumentation 86 degrees, the temperature PL -41,2°, mixed with water in any ratio. Get A. K. catalytic oxidation of ammonia or by the action of concentrated sulfuric acid nitric acid sodium. Technical strong nitric Acid contains 61-68% HNO3, "weak" - 54-60%, fuming (nitricum Acidum fumans) - 86-99,5%, nitrogen oxides, paint it red-brown color. Nitric acid is used in the manufacture of pharmaceuticals, fertilizers, explosives, dyestuffs, for polishing metals and other
Nitric acid dissotsiiruut in aqueous solutions of ions:

Under the action of light and decomposes when heated with the formation of nitrogen dioxide, dye solutions A. K. yellow-brown color; being a strong oxidizer (especially in concentrated solutions), acts on all metals except gold, platinum, rhodium, iridium. Many organic materials (straw, sawdust, clothing, doused concentrated A. K., ignite; alcohol and turpentine explode. Nitrate salts (nitrates) is well soluble in water.
In medicine used (for burning the warts and some other skin lesions) clean And K. (nitricum Acidum purum) - transparent colorless liquid containing 32-33% HNO3.
Couples A. K. are irritating to the respiratory tract. At a weak poisoning signs bronchitis, lung of bronchiolitis, dizziness, drowsiness; in severe poisoning - pulmonary edema. To protect against vapour and mist A. K. use the masks. Concentrated nitric acid, getting on the skin, causing severe burns, and the scab turns yellow in the typical interaction A. K. protein. Diluted solutions A. K. there are a cause of eczema. First aid for ingestion A. K. with skin - wash affected area with plenty of water, and then a solution of baking soda.
Qualitatively A. K. specify (in the absence of nitrous acid) on allocation brown gas - NO2 in the interaction of the test solution with copper or blue colour with diphenylamine; quantitative-kalorimetricheskim or volumetric after restoring it to ammonia. In the table the correlation between the density and composition of water solutions HNO3.

Density at 20 degrees The content HNO3
% g/l moles on l of a solution
1,0036
1,0543
1,1150
1,1800
1,2463
1,3100
1,3667
1,3913
1,4134
1,4521
1,4826
1,5129
1
10
20
30
40
50
60
65
70
80
90
100
10,04
105,4
223,0
354,0
498,5
655,0
820,0
904,3
989,4
1162,0
1334,0
1513,0
0,1593
1,673
3,539
5,618
7,911
accounted for 10.39
13,01
14,35
15,70
18,43
21,17
24,01

First aid. At hit of nitric acid in their eyes washed with running water within 10-30 minutes; after contact with skin skin surface wash water, adding to it the baking soda, soap. If swallowed nitric acid shown stomach wash with plenty of water, injections of morphine, atropine. First aid for poisoning of nitric acid, which act like nitrogen oxides,see Nitrogen. Cm. also Poisoning.