Bacteremia

Bacteremia is the presence in the blood of bacteria. Bacteria can penetrate the blood of the affected organs (for example, intestines), by bringing their blood-sucking parasites immediately after injury. Breakthrough of germs in the blood occur during certain periods of certain diseases (eg, bacteremia with typhoid fever, the paratyphoid).
Bacteria, caught in the blood of healthy people or animals disappear from it for a few hours (sometimes days); the body gets rid of them with the help of phagocytosis, humoral factors of immunity, and also by removing their salivary glands, kidneys, liver. In a weakened organism (as a result of starvation, exposure to ionizing radiation, and so on) bacteria can remain in the blood for longer. Depending on the ratio of virulence of a microbe and body resistance bacteremia may result in complete cleansing of the blood from microorganisms, and at sharply reduced resistance of the organism of the patient - onset - of sepsis (see) or septicopyemia. With bacteremia associated generalization of the pathological process, i.e. the emergence of focal lesions in other organs, in addition to the initially affected (pyelitis or osteomyelitis of typhoid fever, miliary tuberculosis at the break of mycobacteria in the blood). Bacteremia is of great epidemiological importance in those diseases where the infection is transmitted by insects (such as typhus and relapsing fever), or the penetration of the pathogen to the excretory organs, and through them into the environment (for example, the allocation of Brucella with urine). Identify bacteremia by planting blood on nutrient media, and in some cases (relapsing fever, leptospirosis) microscopy of stained smears or thick drops of blood.

Bacteremia (bacteria and Greek. haima, blood) is the presence of bacteria in the blood. Cause bacteraemia can serve as the invasion of pathogenic or saprophytic bacteria and their penetration into the bloodstream through the intestinal wall, the tonsils, the respiratory tract. Transient bacteremia happens after removal of carious teeth, tonsillectomy and other operations. When the number of infectious diseases (leptospirosis, typhus and relapsing fever, tularemia) development of bacteremia connected with invasion of pathogens through the damaged skin and mucous membranes. B. characteristic of intestinal infectious diseases such as typhoid, paratyphoid and other Salmonella infections, brucellosis, botulism, the pathogenesis of which she plays an important role in determining the generalization of infection, education secondary lesions, lesions of various organs and systems. This bacteriemia does not violate the cyclical development of the pain, unlike septicemia accompanying acyclic on for infectious diseases (e.g., sepsis). To the development of the Baltic leads violation of tissue barriers in the field of the entrance gate infection, and regional lymph nodes. Most dramatically bacteriemia expressed in the acute (generalized) the period of infectious diseases, as is the case, for example, of typhoid fever and brucellosis. As the overcoming of the body of infection, enhance phagocytic activity of leucocytes, growth titer bacteriolytical and other antibodies B. decreases up to her disappearance. As a rule, B. apparent only during the febrile period of the disease; however, typhoid fever, it can be even at normal temperatures, particularly in atypical cases. For some diseases (such as tularemia) may be transient bacteremia without the development of secondary infection. We prove the existence of intermittent bacteremia when bakterionositelstvo (see germ-carriers). B. can develop when vaccination against some infectious diseases (for example, in case of skin vaccination against tularemia), but in these cases it is of a temporary character.
To detect bacteremia can be used: a) smear examination dark-field) or painted blood products (relapsing fever, malaria, spirochetes, leptospirosis); b) bacteriological analysis (see) - blood culture on appropriate medium, such as gall broth of typhoid fever and paratyphoid; C) biological method - infection experimental animals, as well as vectors of infection, including lice and other arthropods, by the blood of the sick person (typhus, plague, brucellosis, leptospirosis and other). Bacteremia in animals may be caused in the conditions of the experiment with the introduction of the living culture
bacteria subcutaneously (Fig. 1 and 2), intraperitoneally, and by feeding culture (Fig. 3). Development B. contribute to the reduction of immunity (see), the body, the action of ionizing radiation, including x-ray irradiation (Fig. 4), cortisone injections. B. easily develop in case of experimental radiation sickness(see).
Blood purification from bacteria is due to bacteriostatic and bactericidal action of antibodies (see) and phagocytosis (see) bacteria white cells and endothelial cells. B against pathogens, highly invasive ability and mobility (for example, pale Treponema - syphilis), the body makes specific antibodies - immobilized.
Epidemiological impact of bacteremia is determined by the possibility of vector-borne transmission (see). Infection vectors (see) is in the process of feeding a sick person (animal) only during bakterioliticescoe phase. Garagemate vectors is depending on the severity of the disease and, therefore, tensions bacteremia. According to the Institute of Richer, in the first week of the disease with severe form of typhus infected lice in 30-50%, and with an easy - to 5-6% of cases. Bacteremia is of epidemiological importance, and with other retransmission diseases. The penetration of the pathogen of blood into the tissues and organs diversifies out of the causative agent from the body and is essential for the formation of carriage (biliary and urinary carrier of pathogens of typhoid and paratyphoid, uric - Brucella, leptospirs, and so on).
The possible occurrence and intensity B. influence specific treatment that can prevent And recurrent bacteremia.