Bacterial growth factors

Bacterial growth factors - (synonym: bacterial vitamins, additional nutrients, BIOS) is required for activity of the bacterial cell organic matter that she is not able to synthesize their own and have to get ready. On the existence of B. F. R. for the first time paid attention of L. Pasteur. Bacterial growth factors connection of different chemical nature; most of them belong to the water-soluble b vitamins; function B. F. R. are also geminus, choline, purine and pyrimidine bases and many amino acids. The absence in the environment B. F. R. leads to a bacteriostatic effect of bakteriostaz (see), which in some cases is accompanied by cytological changes. Bacterial growth factors not serve for microbial cells of plastic or energy materials and are used by bacteria in negligible quantities in an unmodified form. Some factors as the active groups (coenzymes) included in the structure of different cellular enzymes.
The most important bacterial growth factors include: thiamine (vitamin B1) - a part of some of coenzymes that play an important role in carbohydrate metabolism; Riboflavin (vitamin B2)is involved in redox processes; Pantothenic acid is involved in the construction of enzyme systems bacterial cells, in particular of coenzyme A, pyridoxine (vitamin B6) - derivative of this growth factor plays an important role in the exchange of amino acids, the vitamin B12 - is a member of an active group of enzymes involved in the reactions of synthesis of nucleotides; folic acid in the form of one of its derivatives is part of the enzymes catalyzing the synthesis of purine and pyrimidine bases, and some amino acids, Biotin - participates in nitrogen metabolism, and catalyzes the synthesis of unsaturated fatty acids; nicotinic acid (vitamin PP) and its amide is involved in the synthesis of coenzymes; para-aminobenzoic acid, a component of folic acid, apparently, and performs an independent functions in metabolism; gemin is a part of some enzymes involved in the oxidation reactions; choline is involved in the synthesis of cellular lipids, and is an aid donor of methyl groups in different biosynthesis reactions; purine and pyrimidine bases (adenine, guanine, xanthine, gipoksantin, cytosine, thymine, and uracil) - needed mainly as components of nucleic acids, amino acids are components of cellular proteins; some of them play and biocatalytic functions.
The need of bacteria in various bacterial growth factors varied: most of saprophytes it is reduced to a minimum, while pathogenic microbes (germs of brucellosis, diphtheria, anthrax, tularemia, and others) can only grow in synthetic environments that contains many amino acids and other substances. In relation to B. F. R. microorganisms are divided into auxotrophy, dependent on the presence in the environment of extra nutrients, and prototropic, are able to synthesize necessary substances. The need of this strain of bacteria in B. F. R. identified by removing the studied substance of full synthetic environment that contains known bacterial growth factors and subsequent study of the growth and reproduction sown bacterial population. Research needs of microbes in B. F. R. promotes the development of a full-fledged media required to obtain large quantities of microbial biomass and products of microorganisms, in the manufacture of vaccines, serums, antibiotics, vitamins; facilitates the finding of new chemotherapeutic agents, acting as antimetabolites, etc. Cm. also Bacterial culture.