Balantidia

of balantidiaBalantidia (synonym infusoria dysentery) - protozoal disease characterized by ulcerative lesions of large intestine with violation of its functions.
Pathogen - Balantidium coli from the class of infusoria (Fig).
The main source of infection - pigs. Infection balantidiozom through eating infected cysts balantidia food and water, as well as through dirty hands and various household items. Increasingly ill people working in pig farms, slaughterhouses and in sausage production. Sporadic cases balantidiozom occur everywhere.
When penetration of the agent in the walls of the colon are formed crater ulcers.
The clinical picture. In most cases, the disease occurs with minor periodic disorders activity of intestines. Sometimes these phenomena are increasing and give a picture of chronic recurrent colitis. Severe acute balantidioza the clinical course remind bacterial dysentery: frequent liquid mucopurulent, then hematochezia, tenesmus, pain along the colon, loss of appetite, nausea, weakness, cachexia. The temperature often within norm.
Complications: peritonitis, intestinal bleeding.
Diagnosis of balantidiasis is based on clinical symptoms and data of rectoromanoscopy (see). Absolute proof of balantidiasis is the detection of pathogens in a newly allocated faeces.
Forecast in mild cases favourable, in serious, possibly fatal.
Treatment is the same as when the amebiasis.
Prevention. Timely detection and treatment of patients with balantidiozom, strict observance of rules of personal hygiene. Activities, prevent pollution of the environment in the faeces of humans and swine. In pig-breeding farms need cleaning pig, composting of faeces.

Balantidia (balantidiasis; synonym infusoria dysentery) - azwenne defeat of the colon violation of his functions as a result of penetration and propagation in tissues of the colon parasitic infusoria Balantidium coli.
Body shape ciliates (Fig. 1, a) is incorrect oval; length 50 - 80 MK, sometimes more; width 35 - 60 MK. Movement is carried out by cilia (4-6 MK)that covers the whole body. On the front end has the oral crack - zetastom. In the cytoplasm many vacuoles containing food include: erythrocytes, leukocytes, starch grains, fungi, bacteria, etc. In the middle part of the body there are bobowicko kernel - macronucleus; the middle part is adjacent small kernel - micronucleus. In the intestines and human tissues Balantidium coli multiplies lateral separation; sometimes there is algae. Stoupakova occurs in the gut. Cysts (Fig. 1, b) round, dia. 50-70 MK. Balantidium coli is well cultivated on Wednesday proposed for cultivation dizenterina forming.
Epidemiology. The main source of the infection are pigs. However, the people that produce ciliates, can infect others. Wild rats and dogs play a minor role. Cysts under favorable conditions persist in the feces for several weeks and can get into the human digestive tract with contaminated food, water, vegetables, and through contaminated hands. Flies can also transmit cysts of balantidia.
Sporadic cases of disease by balantidiozom registered in almost all countries. Epidemic outbreaks of balantidioza are extremely rare.
Pathological anatomy. The penetration Balantidium coli in the walls of the colon ulcers with rough, sometimes saped edges of different size and form, dia. up to 3 - 4 see Most often affected cecum and ascending part of the colon (Fig. 2 and 3). Introduced insects destroy the mucous membrane of the intestine, penetrates into the submucosal and spread it. Considerable damage the tissues of the colon sometimes lead to perforation.
The clinical picture of balantidioza diverse and maloperation. A large number of diseases proceeds with a slight periodic bowel disorder. In some cases, these phenomena are increasing and give a picture of chronic recurrent colitis, flowing over a number of years and leading to cachexia.
Severe acute balantidioza remind bacterial dysentery: liquid mucopurulent, then bloody stools up to 15-20 times a day, which is bottled pain around the abdomen or in the middle of the large intestine, loss of appetite, nausea, tenesmus, General weakness. The temperature often within norm, sometimes fever wrong type with chills. In rare cases, there can be perforation of the colon, leading to a General peritonitis. In case of insufficient or incorrect treatment after remission of symptoms can occur relapses occurring both primary acute balantidia. There is also an asymptomatic carrier Balantidium coli.
Diagnosis in each case must be confirmed by the findings of balantidia. It is necessary to consider temporary absence (up to 2 weeks) parasite in the feces of patients with balantidiozom and discovery of the media, cases of disorders of the intestine other etiology.
The forecast. Light and moderate forms of balantidioza at timely detection and treatment are not dangerous. In severe prognosis is often poor. Mortality 7-29%. Timely case detection and treatment reduces mortality to zero.
Treatment. Terramycin or biomitsin of 0.1-0.4 g 4 times a day for two five-day cycles with an interval of 5 days; monomitsin per os 125 000 - 150 000 UNITS under the same scheme. Less effective Einarson (0.25 g 3 times a day for two five-day cycles). Restorative therapy. Heavy advanced cases of the disease can be treated with difficulty. Treatment of balantidiasis necessarily.
Prevention is the same as in other intestinal infections: activities aimed at prevention of environmental pollution with the faeces of humans and swine. In pig-breeding farms need rational content of pigs, cleaning pig, composting of faeces. Special attention should be paid to the timely detection and treatment of carriers and patients balantidiozom.