Embalming corpses

Embalming corpses - soaking of organs and tissues of the deceased substances that prevent their degradation. Embalming substances have antiseptic properties and terminated autolytic tissue enzymes. Embalming fluid is injected under pressure into the bloodstream of the corpse by large anatomical injecting equipment or devices, pumping the liquid (hydraulic sprayer, irrigator). If the corpse is not opened, then the solution is injected through the cannula, is inserted in the ascending Department of the aorta or in the common carotid (or femoral) artery. Embalming dissected corpses carried out by regions, pumping the liquid in regional traffic arteries (common carotid, subclavian, common iliac) after ligation of vessels of internal organs. For embalming corpses usually takes 6-7 liters of solution.
In forensic practice embalming solution (solution of formalin or a mixture of equal parts of alcohol with formalin) is injected with a syringe in the body cavity and tissues unopened corpse. For short storage corpse used the following solutions: 10-20% formalin solution; mixture of formalin 100 ml 900 ml of water, corrosive sublimate 10 g; mixture of formalin 100 ml, 200 ml of alcohol, water 650 ml, chloride zinc 50 g; mixture (200 ml), glycerin, alcohol, formaldehyde, water 400 ml, carbolic acid 50 g To preserve the appearance of the deceased apply formaline-glyceric mixture of glycerin 600 ml, 200 ml of alcohol, formalin 200 ml, potassium acetate 30 g) and special methods of embalming.

Embalming corpses - introduction to tissue body substances that prevent the degradation processes. Embalming corpses produce mainly for educational, scientific, forensic purposes, and also for health reasons. Embalming was used for the preservation of corpses prominent public figures. The embalming corpses centuries-old history. Currently, there are many preservatives, used a variety of methods. Their choice is determined by the objective to protect the dead body from decay for a short period or for a long time. As pathological study of organs and tissues of the body, subjected to embalming, difficult, and embalming after opening technically relatively more difficult and is often unreliable, in each case need to decide what is more important: post-mortem examination of a corpse or long-term preservation.
Canning (embalming) of the corpse of a thin man, a corpse without signs of decay undoubtedly gives the best results (even if applied primitive technique)than embalming dead body fat subject. High temperature environment in which there was a dead body before embalming, promotes its decomposition and consequently reduces the effectiveness of conservation. Of preservatives used for embalming corpses, the most widely 5-10% water solution of formalin (see Formaldehyde). However, formalin spoils the skin and prevents the development of mould; under its influence, discolored tissue, become fragile and poorly prepariruetsya. In this regard, the formalin add other antiseptic substances (thymol, phenol, alcohol, mercuric chloride, carbolic acid, glycerin, zinc chloride). Such a strong disinfectant, as thymol, add to 10% water solution of formalin based manufacturing 5% solution of thymol. Phenol is used in the same concentration as the thymol. Phenol effective against mold fungus, but has an unpleasant odor. To enhance the retention of fluid in the tissues, and also with the purpose of weakening decolourising influence of formalin to it add alcohol at the rate of 10-20%. Used as a component of the solution of formalin and mercuric chloride (10% solution), but it spoils tools, gives the corpse of a dark color, deprives its natural appearance. Zinc chloride is used in a 10% solution, but under his influence tissue is much denser and take a grayish shade.
Widely used for embalming corpses glycerin. With hygroscopic properties, glycerin prevents drying fabrics, but in a very large number reduces antiseptic properties of formalin and thymol. On the skin of a corpse desiccation her appear so-called parchment spots. In such cases, the skin is treated by the method B. N. Vorobyov weak solution of acetic acid, and then use the hydrogen peroxide, which eliminates tissue and promotes the best action for them glycerol and potassium acetate. The latter, as glycerin, attracts moisture from the air. As a result of these events parchment skin spots disappear. Glycerin roads, and as his substitute was recommended sorbitol syrup used in pharmaceutics and cosmetics.
Along with common preservative agents are trying to apply other: acetaldehyde, pyridine, ethanol, thiosulfate and other Good results obtained from testing isopropanol which can serve as a substitute of glycerin. To reduce the smell of a dead body recommend to the preservative solution to add the essential oils of eucalyptus, lavender, bergamot, organovo, rose at the rate of 0.5 - 1%.
Successful embalming is achieved primarily thorough soaking corpse preservative liquid. The best results are obtained by introducing fluid into the ascending aorta. You can also injected a corpse through the carotid or femoral artery. Consumption of preservative: with the introduction through the aorta - about 6 liters, through the carotid artery is about 4-5 l, through the femoral artery is about 3-4 L. If the corpse is opened it is injected separately for each part of the body through the appropriate main artery. Fluid injected through various devices (device Vyvodtsev, atomizer); you can also use a large syringe or irrigation mug. Body parts, not impregnated with a solution, fill preservative advanced through the corresponding artery, or directly by puncture tissue through a needle. For a better safety of the corpse fluid being in the cavity of the body (abdominal, chest) and in natural orifice. The gut is filled with preservative substances through klasterni tube; bladder - through glass cannula, is inserted into the urethra. Respiratory tract fill with a solution through a glass tube, carried out through the mouth into the larynx and trachea. It is recommended to enter a cotton swab moistened with embalming fluid in the cavity of the nose, throat, ear canal, the vagina. Good results of the subsequent submersion of the corpse in preserving fluid for several months. After embalming corpses can be stored in the same preservative solutions or dry.

The most common are the following methods of embalming corpses.
I. Melnikov Method Razvedenkova. Allows you to store corpses in the clear. Procedure: a) the introduction in the artery to fill arterial and venous bed preservative liquid (formalin - 100 ml, potassium chloride 5 g, potassium acetate or of sodium - 30 g, water - 1000 ml); b) the immersion of a corpse for 1-2 months in the liquid of the same composition; impregnation of fabrics 96 grades alcohol through injection arteries and immersion of a corpse in a bath with alcohol for a few days; in this way recovers the colouring of the coat (painted meth and raw alcohol are not suitable); d) the immersion of a corpse in glycerine-acetic acid mixture of glycerin - 600 ml acetic acid potassium or sodium - 400 g, water - 1000 ml) for at least 4 months. When signs of drying of a corpse should apply the method Vorobeva (see above).
II. Method Of Shor-Joseph. It is used to store the prepared corpses. The sequence of actions:
a) vascular injection 5-10% water solution of gelatin mixed with chalk; cordials arteries to liquid add minium and cordials veins - ultramarine;
b) the preservation of the corpse on the way Melnikova razvedenkova, Keyserlingia or Shor (see Drugs postmortem), C) preparation of vessels, nerves, muscles; d) the conclusion of a corpse in a sealed transparent camera.
III. Method Vyvodtsev. Vascular injection using a special apparatus (Vyvodtsev) preservative liquid in recipe: thymol - 5 g, glycerin - 1700 ml, water - 1000 ml. In the manufacture of this mixture thymol need to dissolve in a small amount of alcohol.
IV. Method Minakova. Used in forensic practice. The mixture of alcohol and formalin (equally) to introduce in the chest and abdomen, as well as through specially drilled a hole in the skull cavity.
V. Method Of Brooches. Is used when you want to save the corpse without making cuts. Necessary syringe in capacity of 400 ml and a special needle and cannula in length from 15 to 125 cm, which through the urethra advance further in that direction (chest, abdomen, legs). The skull cavity is injected through the opening of the nose. This is achieved by soaking tissue preservative solution without damaging the skin.
VI. Method Abrikosov. In the vessels entering formaline-glycerin mix (recipe: glycerin - 600 ml, alcohol - 200 ml, formalin - 200 ml acetic acid potassium - 30 ml); then the corpse immersed in spirtovogo solution of glycerin rising concentration; in 4 months the corpse is usually suitable for storage in a dry kind.
VII. For a relatively long retention of corpses for training purposes recommend the following preservative liquid: formalin - 250-300 ml, alcohol - 500 ml, glycerin - 1000 ml, carbolic acid-50 g, water is boiled - 3000 - 3500 ml