Bartonella

Bartonella (synonym: fever Oroya, Peru wart, a disease carrion) is an infectious disease characterized by fever, hemolytic anemia in an early phase and skin involvement in late. The disease is caused by Bartonella dacilliformis - found in red blood cells and the cells of the reticulo-endothelial system. Bartonella strictly endemic in South America. Sources of infection is a sick person, the media, perhaps wild animals. Vector of Bartonella are mosquitoes. Susceptible to Bartonella all people. We recover a strong immune system. The incubation period 15-40 days. Beginning acute fever (temperature up to 39-40 degrees) intermittent or of the wrong type is kept up to 6 weeks. In addition to the symptoms of intoxication, there is a progressive severe anemia. After 1 to 2 months. after the fall of temperature is developing the second phase with the formation characterized by papules (Peruvian warts), which either izyaslau or turn into a lumpy tumors of vascular nature. Healing is slow, large nodes leave scars. The complication is infection sites. Diagnosis is not difficult; the blood smears stained Romanovsky - Giemsa, detect pathogens.
Treatment of Bartonella symptomatic, to fight with secondary infection is used antibiotics.
Prevention: the destruction of mosquitoes and protection from their bites.

Bartonella (synonym disease carrion), acute infectious disease characterized quite a long period and which is manifested in two forms: Oroya fever and Peruvian wart. Found only in deep valleys of the Andes in Peru and adjacent areas of Ecuador, Brazil, Bolivia. Oroya fever, in which there is a lot of deaths, may, however, take place and erased or almost no symptoms. Therefore, the second form of Bartonella - Peruvian wart, coming after the fever and long flowing and almost no lethal outcomes, can simulate independently arisen infection.
The causative agent of Bartonella - Bartonella bacilliformis-applies at present to a group of microorganisms that gives inclusion in the red blood cells of animals (this group includes also Grahamella, Elipsisoma, Globidiellum and others). Bartonella found in red blood cells, have the form spherical Taurus length of 0.2-1.0 MK or rod-shaped (20-30 sticks, most chain), sometimes slightly bent with more intensively painted all, 1,5 - 2,5 MK.
The primary reproduction of Bartonella penetrated through the defects of the skin, occurs in the endothelium of the capillaries. They are found in the cells of warts and vascular tumors of the Peruvian wart. Bartonella cultivated on environment Noguchi for Leptospira. Pathogens Oroya fever animals to instill fails, although Noguchi (N. Noguchi) and Battistini, using pure cultures, infected them monkeys Macacus rhesus. Human infection occurs through mosquito Phlebotomus verrucarum. The role of the other species of mosquitoes - Phlebotomus noguchii apparently limited only rare cases of infections.
The incubation period for fever Oroya - 2-3 weeks. The temperature reaches 40 degrees and is the intermittent nature, reaches its maximum by noon and then 12 hours later critically falls. In the period of fever observed weakness and a sharp pain, often localized only in one joint. After the fall of the temperature condition is improving, pain in the joints decreases dramatically. After each attack, the number of red blood cells falls sharply, and gradually develops more progressive anemia. The liver and spleen were enlarged and moderately painful. If not, there comes death, in 1-2 months manifests a second stage of the diseases in Peruvian wart. On the face skin, mucous membranes appear eruption rash and nodules, which are then izyaslau or become purplish-red vascular tumor diameter 3-4 see the Temperature is raised. Recover spontaneously, nodules dry up and disappear, leaving no scars. After the disease develops persistent immunity. Diagnosis is based mainly on the examination of the smear of blood and tissue from the tumor and warts.
Treatment with antibiotics : penicillin, streptomycin, chloramphenical (chloramphenicol), aureomycin (biomitsin).
Prevention is to protect people from mosquito bites and the extermination of these insects. Individual infected mosquitoes can dispatched from endemic Bartonella countries, but they are unable to create secondary endemic foci. Aircraft arriving from endemic areas of Bartonella, be treated with insecticides. Patients must be protected against mosquito bites. In endemic areas, Bartonella be subject to mandatory registration.