Germ-carriers (carrier) - the preservation of the human organism (animal) and the isolation of pathogens of contagious disease with no apparent clinical manifestations of the disease.
Diagnosis of baillonella based on bacteriological, virological or parasitological examination of the media. Use methods of detection of the pathogen on nutrient mediums, tissue culture or bioassays and serological reactions (reaction agglutination, RAC, reactions, precipitation, neutralization of toxins and viruses, and so on). Clinical examination rarely helps to recognize germ-carriers, as evident clinical symptoms of the disease does not exist. Several larger value can have an epidemiological survey (see).
The issue of classification of baillonella remains controversial. L. C. Gromashevskyy distinguishes between three categories of media: healthy, convalescents, i.e. recover and the remaining media, and immune. The most reasonable should be considered by the division of the media into two main groups: patients and healthy. The duration of allocation of pathogens distinguish germ-carriers acute (isolation of pathogens to 3 months.) and chronic (more than 3 months). Usually recover from infectious disease are exempt from agents in the next 3 months. if the organism by this time, not exempt from pathogens, he, as a rule, remains a carrier for a long time.
Acute hosting observed in patients and healthy, chronic, usually at the convalescents. When establishing a long history in healthy it is necessary to consider possible transfer of their infectious diseases in erased form. On germ-carriers for various infections effect age: thus, the germ-carriers of pathogens of typhoid fever is more common in old age, and diphtheria bacteria and polio virus in children. The influence of gender on the Baltic most clearly seen in typhoid fever: women are carriers significantly more often than men. Data on the frequency B. when selected infectious diseases listed in the table.
The pathogenesis of baillonella unclear. When the number of infectious diseases indicator of contamination of the organism immunological is rebuilding it. This can be detected by serological surveys of healthy individuals in epidemic foci. In most cases, the body destroys penetrated into it pathogens; in other cases the protective forces the body is not able to destroy pathogens, but protect the organism from clinical disease. That is why presence of bacilli observed, as a rule, in the immune body.
Proven link baillonella and immunization. Persons immunized against typhoid, faster exempt from the carriage, than unvaccinated (L. J. Katz-Chernoivalova). In vaccinated against diphtheria often highlighted avirulent microbes (F. I. the provisioning and others). It is unlikely that such emergency stimuli as the pathogens, once the body is not caused by his side response. But since in some cases the media practically healthy, it is necessary to reckon with the possibility of baillonella in healthy people. The weakening of the media under the influence of adverse factors can lead to reduction of its stability and the manifestation of the disease, which was repeatedly noted in the cerebrospinal meningitis, according to C. L. Trinity with al., the monkeys - media dysentery - under the influence of irradiation occurred acute disease. The media often found pathological changes of some organs and systems (inflammation of the gall bladder typeparameter B., pathology of the mucous membrane of the throat and nose in carriers of diphtheria and so on).
In many infectious diseases germ-carriers is one of the sources of contamination of healthy people. Although the media emit fewer pathogens into the environment compared with patients the risk as a source of infection is still significant. Patients usually isolated; media same, unaware of his danger, and stay in the team, can infect a large number of communicating with them healthy people. Special danger is represented by the media, working at the enterprises of public nutrition, water supply, in children's and medical institutions, etc., the Epidemiological importance of media is determined by the following factors: biological properties of the pathogen (infectivity, toxigenicity, invasiveness and so on); a massive selection infectious agent of the carrier; category media (reconvalescent, healthy media); the total duration and frequency of detection of the pathogen carriers of pathogens; prevalence of carriage; the susceptibility of surrounding persons to the infective agent, i.e. the degree of immunity of the staff.
To ensure holders were offered a variety of chemical drugs and surgery (removal of the gallbladder to brusnitsa the germ-carriers). More effective were the methods directed for treatment of pathological conditions (remediation of the nasopharynx with diphtheria b), which in recent years have successfully use antibiotics and other drugs. The importance of preventive measures: early hospitalization and proper treatment of patients; Department reconvalescents of acute patients; statement of convalescents only after two - and even three-fold (cholera, plague) study on the Baltic, with negative results; when anthroponotic (see) survey of people around the patient, for the timely detection and neutralization of healthy media or in the incubation period; accounting and periodic screening people who have had the disease (dysentery, typhoid fever, diphtheria), butiloksianizol paragraph sanitary-epidemiological station (see); a systematic examination of workers of public catering, water supply, children's and medical institutions; maintenance of carriers of rules of personal hygiene, teaching them methods of disinfection of personal belongings and discharge. Cm. also Parasitological.