Basal sites

Basal nodes (synonym basal ganglia) - aggregations of gray matter (the kernel), located in the depth of the cerebral hemispheres. To basal nodes include: caudate nucleus caudatus), consisting of the head, body and tail; lenticular nucleus lentiformis), consisting of a shell (putamen) and pale ball (globus pallidus). On the basis of community structure and functions of the caudate nucleus unite with shell and call veins system (stratum). Basal nodes associated with the visual hill and under their control are automated movement and various motor acts. Basal nodes adjust the tempo, rhythm, smooth motion, walking, running, climbing and emotional expression (gestures, facial expressions and other). The defeat of basal nodes causes inactivity, lack of facial expressions and other symptoms observed in parkinsonism. With the defeat of caudate nucleus and shell arise hyperkinesia, and with the defeat of pale - balloon akinesis (inactivity) and rigidity.

Basal nodes (synonym: basal ganglia, Central nodes, subcortical nuclei) - aggregations of gray matter, located in the thickness of the white matter of the big hemispheres of a brain. To basal nodes include: caudate and lenticular nucleus, almond kernel, and the fence.
Caudate nucleus caudatus) surrounds the lateral ventricle and has arched shape. Its front thickened part - head (caput) - forms a bottom and lateral wall of the front horns of the lateral ventricles, the middle part of the body (corpus - lateral wall of the middle part of the lateral ventricle. Gradually Sivas, body kernel bent down and goes into a tail (cauda), located in the medial wall of the lower horns of the lateral ventricles.
The body of the caudate nucleus covers visual hill (thalamus opticus) front, top and side (see Thalamus).
Lenticular nucleus lentiformis)lying outwards from caudate nucleus has a shape of a triangular pyramid whose base is directed outwards to the bark of the island (insula), and the tip inside and down to podbugorie region. Streaks of white matter lenticular nucleus is divided into the outer part - shell (putamen) and internal white ball (globus pallidus), which is divided in turn into outer and inner segments. Lenticular nucleus separated from the body caudate nucleus front inner thigh bags (capsula interna), and from visual hump - back of her thigh.
The similarity of the structure of the shell and caudate nucleus, their origin from the end of the cord and functional unity have reason to unite them under a common name striped body (corpus the striatum); because they are phylogenetically new creations, they are referred to neostriatum (neostriatum). Pale ball, education phylogenetically older, by origin related to interstitial mind, stands out as paleostriatum (paleostriatum), although the full extent, this is true only in relation to its internal segment. However, given the close relationship of the caudate and lenticular nucleus and in the morphological and functional relationship, unite them into a single system - tripallium (striopallidum).
Almond kernel (corpus amygdaloideum) is located in an internally-upper part of the front part of the temporal lobe has a complicated structure and consists of 5 engines.
The fence (claustrum) - a thin plate of gray matter - lies outside the shell, separated from it by a layer of white matter, the outer bag (capsula externa), and from the bark of the island-extreme bag (capsula extrema).
Onto - and phylogenetically caudate nucleus, putamen and outer segment pale ball develop from the ganglion of the hill and belong to a finite mind. Domestic segment pale ball comes from interstitial brain and befriends outer segment in the development process. Almond kernel, it was separated from the surrounding formations in the early stages of ontogenesis. Cell differentiation in almond kernel occurs much earlier than in the striatum, and later than in the pale globe. In the process of ontogenesis it grows and is undergoing a large displacement. Fence developed from clusters of neuroblastoma staying in the migration process between striped body and bark, and is education, intermediate between cortical plate and striped body.
Histological study shows that striped body is very different from pale, ball against both cellular structure and myelinated fibers. In the striatum are ganglion cells of two types: small and scattered between them in a small number of large triangular and polygonal in shape (Fig. 1). According to S. Vogt and O. Vogt (C. Vogt, O. Vogt, 1920), small cells belong to the second type of cells correlates, and their short severinenko process does not extend beyond the striatum. Large cells belong to the first type
Fig. 1. The shell. Large and small types of cells (bottom left a large increase).
cells Golgi have long severinenko process, branching outside the striatum. Myelinated fibers in the striatum are insulated beams. In the pale globe are only large variety of forms cells pyramid, spindle-shaped, multi-polar long dendrite (Fig. 2). Pale ball along its entire length is very rich myelinated fibers, which explains his color. Various terms myelin sheath: in the pale globe this process starts earlier than in the striatum. Deep differences also exist in the chemical composition of these formations: iron, oil, lime deposits, discovered in pale globe, in the striatum almost not see.
Communication in striopallidarna system is very complex and not fully clarified. Established its relationship with the bark through the visual hillock. According to the scheme of transmission of impulses, presents C. Vogt and O. Vogt, in the striatum impulses are seen by small cells, sending their efferent impulses large cells striped body, axons are going in pale ball.
Pale ball gets afferent impulses from the striped body, from the visual to the ground, possibly from the bark; numerous efferent fibres go from him to the vision behind and to the various underlying formations medium-and diamond-shaped brain. Pale ball sends impulses for nuclear formations hypothalamic area related To vegetative functions (see Autonomic nervous System).
In the study of the structure of basal nodes method Golgi revealed that both small and large cells striped body include both short-and donnaconna cells; this gives grounds to believe that the striatum is connected not only with pale: ball, but with other nearby nuclei.
Functionally basal nodes, or the nearest child", in the terminology of I. P. Pavlova are anatomical substrate unconditional special complex reflexes (see Subcortical functions). The issue of availability of somatotopic in the striatum and pale ball remains controversial.
With the defeat of striped body regulating the activity allianoi system, there are violent movement, hyperkinesia (see Atetoz, Hyperkinesias, Chorea). In contrast hyperkinetic syndrome, resulting in the defeat of pale globe and extrapyramidal system, characterized by poverty and stiffness, amonia, a kind of shaky (see Parkinson's disease).