Protein degeneration of hepatocytes

Cloudy swelling is the initial and reversible stage of protein malnutrition. As a result of infringement of oxidative phosphorylation mitochondria become permeable to calcium ions and water. Changing the aggregate state of the protein, it swells and becomes clearly visible (the A. F. of Bluger, 1964). In the end, in hepatocytes observed protein grain. Sometimes cloudy swelling occurs as a manifestation of adaptive reactions in response to the increased activity of the organism.
Hydropic, or vacuolar, rebirth demonstrates the expressed protein dystrophy of liver cells and always a pathological symptom. In these cases of dissociative protein complexes are formed crystalloids. The consequence of this is increased swelling of cytoplasm, stretching elastoplasticity tanks forming vacuoles filled with water.
Vodyanogo reborn hepatocytes sharply increased in size, poorly prokalyvayutsya conventional paints. In their cytoplasm and visible large unpaintable vacuoles, which gives the cage net. Sometimes vacuoles merge cell significantly grows and acquires the spherical form. This state is defined as balaninus degeneration (Popper, Schaffner, 1957).
Electron microscopy is allocated expressed tension elastoplasticity tanks, a small number of ribosomes, increase (swelling), and improving osmoticnosti mitochondria, often containing transparent crystalloid formation (Phillips, 1968).
Hydropic degeneration, apparently, occurs as a result of hypoxia hepatic parenchyma. Such changes in ultra structures cells under hypoxic conditions was observed by many researchers (A. I. Strukov and E. F. Lushnikov, 1962; A. A. Pokrovski, M. M. of Tuparov, V. A. Tutelian, 1967). Hydropic degeneration reversible.
Acidophilus degeneration in the initial stage reversible, in severe degree leads to necrosis of hepatocytes. Cytoplasm liver cells becomes homogeneous, gradually losing basophiles and acquires eosinophiles. The nucleus of the cell undergoes Pinoso. Hyaline changes can be caused by so-called focal zitoplazmaticescoy degradation. This process is similar to the education automagically vacuoles - retalitory. Part is separated from the cytoplasm of the cell and subjected to cytolysis. Often when focal zitoplazmaticescoy necrosis such foci sekvestriruyut and forced into the fabric slots, forming a so-called bull Councilmen. Scattered pockets zitoplazmaticescuu acidophilus necrosis electron microscopy detected significantly more frequently than in light microscopy. They often occur in the cells, which have other signs of infection or seem normal. With the active viral hepatitis, this process serves as an electron microscopic signs of disease (Phillips, 1968).
The manifestation of acidophilus degeneration is the appearance in the cytoplasm of liver cells Taurus Mallory (1932) - galinamalina inclusions, stainable haematoxylin-eosin red color of various tints. Regarding the nature of these Taurus different assumptions. They are considered glycogen bodies consisting of glycogen particles located between rows of smooth membrane; the consequence of focal zitoplazmaticescoy degradation; clots, partly composed of lipids. Taurus Mallory most common liver cirrhosis, but detected and other diseases of the liver and always indicate a pronounced activity of the pathological process in it.
Electron microscopic studies allowed to install some morphological and clinical correlation. Thus, according to Schaffner and others (1963), Phillips (1968), liver failure and sudden death correlate with changes of mitochondria; jaundice, delay sulfobromophthalein and hypercholesterolemia involve changes perebranny structures and bile capillaries; hepatomegaly with intracellular and extracellular fat accumulation; gipoprotrombinemiey and hypoalbuminemia, possibly connected with the vacuolization of the endoplasmic reticulum.