Gasoline

Gasoline is a mixture of liquid hydrocarbons; temperature boiling in the range of 35 - 205 degrees (depending on grade gasoline). Easily inflammable liquid with a characteristic smell, very poorly soluble in water. It is mainly used as motor fuel, as thinner and thinner. Receive gas mainly straight-run oil distillation, thermal and catalytic cracking, with different catalytic processes (synthesis of carbon monoxide and hydrogen).
Poisoning gasoline possible on the stages of its production, through transfusions it in small closed premises or use as a solvent. The concentration of gasoline vapour in 30-40 mg/l) dangerous for human life, even if inhaled 5-10 min
In acute poisoning of gasoline appear headache, vomiting, irritation of the upper respiratory tract.
Objectively - fever, reddening of skin, dilated pupils, lability of pulse, heart sounds deaf, the liver is enlarged and painful. In the blood - neutrophilia, acceleration ROHE. In the administration of gasoline through the mouth arise suffocating cough, nausea, vomiting, abdominal pain. Fast developing aspiration pneumonia.
First aid. When poisoning of gasoline in case of insufficiency respiratory produce prolonged artificial respiration; the victim give breathing oxygen from 3-5% admixture C02 (Carbogen); warm up the body. At hit of gasoline in the stomach - oil, careful washing stomach with a thin probe; to induce vomiting or type material resources is not recommended.
In chronic intoxication is observed functional disorders of the nervous system (such neurasthenia, hysteria), weakness, fatigue, insomnia, decreased blood pressure, decreased olfactory threshold of sensitivity, diarrhoea phenomenon in women, menstrual disorder. With prolonged exposure to gasoline in small concentrations, can cause addiction. When the effect on the skin gasoline causes an acute or chronic inflammation of eczema.
Treatment: it is shown temporary suspension from work with gasoline, with the strongly pronounced intoxication - a transfer to another job; designate glycyrrhizinate calcium, vitamins C, B1, PP, iron preparations.
Prevention of poisoning. Necessary for effective ventilation of premises. During cleaning of tanks and tanks out of gasoline - preliminary blowing off their air. It should not be allowed to work with gasoline persons with pronounced changes in the Central nervous system and endocrine organs, diseases of the heart and lungs. For individual prevention of use filtering or hose gas masks. The skin protects special gloves or pastes. Cm. the industrial Poisons.

Gas - liquid mixture of hydrocarbons boiling at different temperatures (below 205 degrees). Gasoline is a clear, colourless or yellow, moving, not miscible with water, easily flammable liquid with a characteristic smell. It is mainly used as motor fuel, as thinner and thinner. Receive gas mainly straight-run oil distillation, thermal and catalytic cracking medium and heavy oil products and oil residues; from resins, formed by the thermal processing of oil shale, coal and peat; in some cases - by destructive hydrogenation of coal, heavy resin or oil residues; light fractions B. receive partial condensation of natural gas. B. and its components are also at various catalytic processes. Modern aviation fuel represents the mixture of several components, including high-octane, added to the base gasoline. The individual composition of hydrocarbons contained in the Baltic known enough. Better studied B. direct distillation; B. for other known mostly only group composition. Depending on the prevalence in gasoline certain hydrocarbons change and its physical properties. Gas used as motor fuel, should meet a number of physico-chemical properties that define the operation of the engine. Petrol-solvent extraction and b are characterized by a narrow fractional composition, the high temperatures of the beginning and the end of boiling.
The degree and nature of the toxicity of B. determined by its chemical composition and partly physical properties. It contains hydrocarbons are drugs with different strengths and some qualitative features of the action. The most toxic aromatic hydrocarbons (see). Less toxic hydrocarbons ziklopropanovom series, even less - paraffin series. Unsaturated hydrocarbons, fatty number strength of close to paraffin. Toxicity B. is determined by the total effect of the constituent hydrocarbons. So, for example, refined petrol direct distillation acts like methane hydrocarbons and cycloparaffins which constitute its main mass.
Gas enters the body mainly through the lungs. Due to the small solubility and vapour B. in the water, and consequently in the blood and other body fluids, by inhalation of vapors B. there is a very rapid saturation of the body with hydrocarbons. Excretion B. from the body is quickly and almost exclusively through the lungs. In connection with chemical inertness the most part included in the Baltic hydrocarbons latter are not in the body of any transformations (with the exception of aromatic hydrocarbons).
The concentration of vapor B. any 30-40 mg/l should be considered dangerous for human life even by inhalation within 5-10 minutes Risk of acute poisoning B. there at all stages of production, transportation and especially when using b as a solvent. At very high concentrations B. acute poisonings occur almost instantaneously. Single and repeated exposure to even small concentrations of vapours B. cause the fragile state of the nervous system of humans and animals. Chronic poisoning of oil B. manifested in animals in the loss of weight, weakness, decreased resistance to infections. Postmortem studies of animal organs almost not find specific changes.
Maximum permissible concentration of gasoline-solvent - 300 mg/m3, B. fuel (oil shale, cracking and other) - 100 mg/m3 (SN 245-63).