Benzene

Benzene (6N6) is the simplest aromatic hydrocarbons. Colorless volatile liquid with specific smell, it is easier water vapours are heavier than air; poorly soluble in water, well in alcohol and other organic solvents. Technical grades contain benzene as impurities xylene, toluene and other high-boiling fractions. Benzene is a dangerous poison. In the production of poisoning possible emergency situations, in violation of the rules of safety, as well as when working in enclosed spaces (production of rubber, paints and so on).
Poisoning. High concentrations of benzene causes momentary excitement; then comes the General weakness, dizziness, nausea, increased respiration and heart rate, lowering blood pressure. In low concentrations with long-term exposure to benzene causes changes in the nervous system, blood and blood-forming organs, affects the liver. The most typical changes in the blood, reducing the number of leukocytes, neutropenia, thrombocytopenia, reducing the number of red blood cells and a decrease in the content of hemoglobin. In the future may develop aplastic anemia. Sometimes there is increased sensitivity to benzene in women, especially pregnant women. Frequent contact benzene on the skin causing dryness, redness, itching, cracking. The body of benzene is excreted in exhaled air and urine in an unmodified form and in the form of oxidation products.
First aid and treatment. Acute poisoning benzene make the victim to fresh air. If breathing has stopped - artificial respiration until the restoration of self-breathing, oxygen or Carbogen, lobelias. Epinephrine is contraindicated. Vomiting - 40% solution of glucose intravenously, in violation of the circulatory injection of caffeine. At hit of benzene in the stomach enter vegetable oil in order to reduce the absorption of benzene and washed stomach (caution - hazardous aspiration). For mild poisoning - peace. At excitation - bromides, preparations of Valerian. Anemia - transfusion erythrocyte mass, vitamin B12, folic acid, in the radiation - vitamin B6, pentauxil.
To prevent infection is administered antibiotics.
Prevention. If the production technology, the substitution of less toxic benzene hydrocarbons, sealing equipment, optimal ventilation. Not permitted to work with benzene pregnant and lactating women, children under 18. Periodic medical examinations running carried out once every six months with obligatory General analysis of blood. Individual prevention is the use of a gas mask (filter or a hose with an air supply).
MAC benzene in the air of working premises 5 mg/m3. Cm. the industrial Poisons.

Benzene is the simplest hydrocarbons aromatic series. Colourless highly refractive liquid with a specific smell, temperature plasma 5,533°, temperature instrumentation. 80,1 degrees; d20 = 0,8790, n20 = 1,50112. Burns strongly smoky flame. Practically insoluble in water and organic solvents (alcohol, ether, acetone and others) is mixed in any relationship. In industry B. obtained from coal tar and contact-catalytic decomposition (aromatization) oils. B. resistant to oxidising agents (diluted HNO3, chromic acid, KMnO4 and others). Under the influence of more powerful oxidizers oxidized to maleic acid. For benzene characteristic substitution reactions - gorodilova, nitration, sulfonation, chlorine (bromine), methylation, alkylation and others In the result of these reactions from B. get nitrobenzene, chlorobenzene, phenol, benzene, styrene and other substances used as intermediates in aniline-dye and pharmaceutical industry (for synthesis and sulfa antimicrobials), production of high-octane fuels, rubber, plastics. Some animals (dog, rabbit) in the body B. turns into Mukanova acid.