Beryllium (Beryllium, Glucinium;), Ve,is a chemical element of group II of the periodic table number 4. The metal is light gray, atomic weight 9,0122, temperature melting 1280 degrees, the density of 1.85. Beryllium and its compounds are widely used in various industries.
Known for sustainable one and four of the radioactive isotope. The main mineral beryl (SWE·Al2O3·6SiO2). Types of beryl emerald and aquamarine - precious stones. Get beryllium electrolysis molten salts. Beryllium - hard, brittle metal is light gray in color, density of 1.85, temperature plasma 1280°, temperature instrumentation. 2471°, skip x-ray. Used in x-ray machines for device "Windows", in nuclear reactors as a moderator and reflector of neutrons. Beryllium is widely used as a source of neutrons. Alloys containing beryllium is used in instrument making, aircraft, automotive industry and others When heated beryllium combines with oxygen (lit), forming oxide EEO, with grey - BeS, carbon - Ve2C, Halogens - Weg2 (where Mr. halogen atom); salts (except HNO3) and alkali-soluble and release of hydrogen. Hydroxide Be(OH)2 (amphoteric basis) is poorly soluble in water. Beryllium and its compounds are highly toxic. In acute poisoning are bronchitis, pneumonia, inflammation of mucous membranes of eyes, eczema, chronic - sclerosis lungs, berillios (see Pneumosclerosis, Pneumoconiosis), degeneration of the liver and other organs. Determination of beryllium spend fluorescent and spectrographic methods.
Beryllium and its compounds (especially soluble in water) have pronounced toxic properties. From insoluble compounds the most toxic beryllium oxide. (EES). Beryllium and its compounds enter the body mainly through the lungs.
Poisoning. Soluble compounds beryllium can cause damage to the skin type of eczema and dermatitis, mucous membranes of the upper respiratory tract and eyes, and lungs.
Symptoms of acute toxicity include shortness of breath, sore throat, substernal pain, cough with little sputum, wheezing, may develop pneumonia.
First aid - inhalation : move to fresh air. Further symptomatic treatment aimed at combating lung damage. In some cases of acute poisoning can lead to chronic lung disease - berillios (see Pneumoconiosis).
Prevention. Work with beryllium and its compounds should be made in a special isolated rooms, adapted for daily wet cleaning, and operations with them sealed and mechanized. MAC beryllium and its compounds in the air 0,001 mg/m3. All workers should be provided with a full set of working clothes, including underwear, hats, shoes and respirators type "Petal" (see Respirator). Personal working clothes should be stored separately from clothing. You should monitor the integrity of the skin of hands. All workers should undergo periodic medical examination 1 time in 6 months. with mandatory by radiography of the thorax.