Unconditional reflexes

Unconditional reflexes - permanent innate reactions to certain impact of the external world, intermediated by the nervous system, and do not require special conditions for their occurrence.
All unconditional reflexes on the complexity and severity of reactions are divided into simple and complex; depending on the type reaction - food, sex, defensive, approximately research and others; depending on the relationship of the animal to the stimulus - the biologically positive and biologically negative. Unconditional reflexes arise mainly under the influence of irritation contact: food unconditional reflex - by ingestion of food in the mouth and its impact on receptors of language; defensive - upon stimulation of pain receptors. However, the emergence of unconditioned reflexes possible and under the influence of irritants such as sound, the sight and smell of the subject. So, sexual unconditional reflex occurs under the influence of specific sexual stimulus (appearance, odour and other stimuli coming from female or male). Approximately research unconditional reflex always occurs in response to a sudden little known irritant and is typically at the turn of the head and the movements of the animal in the direction of the stimulus. Biological sense, it is the examination of this stimulus and all the external environment.
To complex unconditional reflexes are those that have a cyclic character and is accompanied by various emotional reactions (see Emotions). These reflexes often referred instincts (see).
Unconditional reflexes are the basis for the formation of conditioned reflexes. Violation or perversion of unconditioned reflexes usually associated with organic lesions of brain; investigation of unconditioned reflexes is performed to diagnose a number of diseases of the Central nervous system (see pathological Reflexes).

Unconditional reflexes (species, natural reflexes) - congenital the body's response to certain external or internal environment, carried out through the Central nervous system and do not require special conditions for its appearance. The term was coined I. P. Pavlov and indicates that the reflex of course occurs if certain receptor surface marked with adequate irritation. The biological role of unconditioned reflexes is that they fit the animal of this kind in the form of relevant instruments of conduct for regular, usual factors of the environment.
The development of the doctrine of unconditional reflexes related to research, I. M. Sechenov, Pfluger (that is, Pfluger), Char (F. Goltz), Sherrington (C. S. Sherrington), Magnus (Century Magnus), N. That is, Vvedensky, A. A. Ukhtomsky, laid the foundations for the next stage in the development of reflex theory, when I finally was able to fill in the saline content of the concept of the reflex arc that existed before as anatomical and physiological scheme (see Reflexes). Doubtless condition that determined the success of this quest, was the full realization that the nervous system operates as a whole, and therefore acts as a very complex structure .
Brilliant foresight I. M. Sechenov of the reflex based on the mental activity of the brain has served as a starting point for research, I. P. Pavlov, who, by developing the doctrine of higher nervous activity, has opened two forms nervous reflex activity: unconditional and conditional reflexes. Pavlov wrote: "... we must admit the existence of two kinds of reflex. One reflex - ready, with which an animal is born, pure conductor reflex, and another reflex - constantly, constantly formed during the individual life, exactly the same features, but is based on another property of our nervous system - on the circuit. One is the reflex can be called natural, the other purchased, and accordingly: one species, the other individual. Born, species, DC, stereotypical we called unconditional, the other because it depends on many conditions, constantly varies depending on many conditions, we called conditional...".
Complex dynamics of the interaction of conditioned reflexes (see) and the absolute is the basis of nervous activity of humans and animals. Biological value unconditioned reflexes, as the conditioned reflex activity is the adaptation of the organism to various changes in the external and internal environment. Such major acts as self-regulation functions, basically have adaptive activities B. R. Exact adaptation B. p. to the qualitative and quantitative characteristics of the stimulus, especially carefully studied in laboratories Pavlov examples of work of digestive glands, allowed the material to treat the problem of the biological viability B. R., referring to exact compliance functions nature of irritation.
Differences between B. R. and conditional reflexes are not absolute, but relative. A variety of experiments, in particular with the destruction of the different parts of the brain, allowed Pavlov to create understanding of the anatomical basis of the conditioned reflexes: "the Higher nervous activity, " wrote Pavlov,is composed of the activity of cerebral hemispheres and the coming of the basal ganglia, representing
a combined activities of these two important parts of the Central nervous system. These basal ganglia are... the most important centres unconditioned reflexes, or instincts: food, defensive, gender and so on ...". The views expressed Pavlov now we have to admit just how the scheme. His teaching about the analyzers (see) suggests that morphological substrate unconditioned reflexes in fact covers different parts of the brain, including the large hemisphere, referring afferent the representation of the analyzer, from which this is called B. R. In the mechanism B. R. important role belongs to reverse afferention about the results and success of the committed action (P. K. Anokhin).
In the early years of the development of the doctrine of conditional reflexes individual students Pavlov, conducting research salivary unconditioned reflexes, claimed their extreme stability, permanence. Subsequent studies showed unilateralism such views. In the laboratory the Pavlov was found a number of conditions experience, in which B. R. changed even during one experiment. In the future were presented evidence that it is more correct to speak about the variability unconditioned reflexes than about them steady. Important elements in this respect are: the interaction of reflexes with each other (as B. R. and B. R. gated), hormone-humoral factors of the body, the tone of the nervous system and its functional state. Of particular importance these questions in connection with the problem of instincts (see)that a number of representatives of the so-called ethology (the science of behavior) tries to show constant, independent of the external environment. It is sometimes difficult to determine the specific factors of variability B. R., especially when it comes to the internal environment of the body (hormonal, humoral or interoceptive factors), and then some scientists fall into the mistake of talking about spontaneous variability B. R. Similar deterministische build and idealistic conclusions lead away from the materialistic understanding of reflex.
I. P. Pavlov has repeatedly stressed the importance of systematization and classification of Unconditional reflexes which serve as the Foundation for the rest of the nervous system of the body. Existing template division reflexes on food, self-preservation, sexual too General and imprecise,- he pointed. Necessary detailed systematization and thorough description of all the individual reflexes. Speaking of systematization along with classification, Pavlov was referring to the need for extensive study of certain reflexes or their groups. The task should be recognized and very important and very difficult, especially because Pavlov and such complex reflexes, as instincts, not allocated from a number jesuslovesporn phenomena. From this point of view is especially important and study already known, and finding new and complex forms of reflex activity. Here we must give this logical direction, which in some cases gets the facts that represents doubtless interest. However, it remains unacceptable ideological basis of this direction, essentially denying the reflective nature of instincts.


Unconditional reflexes "pure" can appear one or more times after the birth of an animal, and then in a short time, "acquires" conditional reflexes and other B. R. All this makes it very difficult classification B. R. so far failed to find common principles of their classification. So, for example, A. D. Slonim based his classification on the principle balance of the organism with the environment and the maintenance of a constancy of structure of its internal environment. In addition, they selected group of reflexes, does not ensure the conservation of individual species, but are important for the conservation of the species. Extensive classification B. R. and instincts proposed N. A. Rozhanskyi. At its Foundation is based on biological and ecological characteristics and dual (positive and negative) manifestation of reflex. Unfortunately, the classification Rozhanskyi sins subjective evaluation entity of reflex, which found its expression in the name of some reflexes.
Systematization and classification of unconditioned reflexes should provide their ecological specialization. When the environmental adequacy of stimuli and biological fitness of the effector is manifested in a very precise differentiation B. R. Speed, strength, and indeed the possibility of formation of the conditioned reflex depend not so much on the physical or chemical characteristics of the stimulus, as from the environmental adequacy of the stimulus and unconditional reflex.
Of great interest is the problem of the origin and development B. R. I. P. Pavlov, A. A. Ukhtomsky, K. M. Bykov, P. K. Anokhin and others felt B. R. arise as conditional, and later in the evolution of fixed and moving in congenital.
Pavlov pointed out that the new emerging reflexes while maintaining the same conditions of life in successive generations, apparently, continuously become permanent. This is probably one of the existing mechanisms of development of an animal organism. Not recognizing this situation, it is impossible to imagine the evolution of nervous activity. Nature cannot prevent such a waste, " said Pavlov, " to each new generation had to start from the beginning. Transitional forms reflexes, occupying an intermediate position between conditional and unconditional, were found during the great biological adequacy of stimuli (C. I. Klimov in. A. Orlov, A. I. Oparin and others). These conditional reflexes faded. Cm. also the Higher nervous activity.