Biometrics (from the Greek. bios - life, metreo - measure - direction biological research, which finds wide application of the set of methods of mathematical processing of the investigated data (mass measure various characteristics of organisms, populations, biocoenosis).
The founders of biometrics were L. Quetelet, laid the foundations of scientific anthropometry (see) and vital statistics, or demography, G. Mendel, whose work "Experiments on plant hybrids" (1866) opened the era of the quantitative study of communication traits of offspring with signs of parents (see Genetics). The term "biometrics" was introduced into science F. Galton. In 1901, he founded the journal "Biometrics". In the 20th century, in addition to the mathematical-statistical methods biometrics began to use the methods of differential and integral calculus, in particular the study of population dynamics of organisms, including pathogens. The founder of this direction became R. Ross, who used higher mathematics to the study of interactions between a number of human population, affected by the malaria malaria, and the number of mosquito vector. In recent decades, the field of application of biometrics has expanded considerably in the birth of Cybernetics, studying applied to biology and medicine quantitative regularities self-regulating living systems - organisms, populations and ecosystems.
For practical medicine, it is important the use of biometrics in the development problems honey. Biophysics, disease diagnosis and assessment of efficiency of methods of therapy and surgery.