Biomicroscopy (microscopy living eyes) - a detailed study of eye structures conducted using a special optical device - a slit lamp. The main part of the device is an aperture in the form of a narrow gap, due to which it got its name.
In the Soviet Union most common model slit lamp SL-56. With the lamp of this model it is possible to survey both anterior and posterior eye - vitreous body and the fundus of the eye.
Biomicroscopy enables to detect tiny changes in the eye, discover small foreign bodies and to determine the depth of the location of the pathological process. Biomicroscopy is very important for the diagnosis of perforated wounds of cornea and other eye diseases.

Biomicroscopy (SYN. microscopy of living eyes is a research technique that allows you to thoroughly examine the conjunctiva, Horny, iridescent shell, anterior chamber of the eye, lens, vitreous body, as well as the Central parts of the fundus (biomicrotechnology); proposed by Gullstrand (A. Gullstrand). The method is based on biomicroscopy is the phenomenon of light contrast (the phenomenon of Tyndale).
Using biomicroscopy you can spend the early diagnosis of the majority of eye diseases (such as glaucoma and trachoma), to determine perforated wound eyeball, to detect very small foreign bodies in the conjunctiva, cornea, anterior chamber of the eye and the lens that is not detected by x-ray (glass, aluminium, coal, eyelash). Biomicroscopy perform using a slit lamp.
The device (Fig. 1) consists of the illuminator and binocular stereoscopic microscope. Light source in the luminaire is used lamp (6, 25 W), powered from the mains AC 127 or 220 V through a step-down transformer. On the path of the light beam is
the mechanism slit, allowing to receive the vertical and horizontal lighting crack. In the case of the binocular microscope is an optical device that provides various options to increase(5, 10, 18, 35, 60 times). On the binocular microscope fortified diffuser lens force of about 60 D, neutralizing the positive effect of the optical system of the eye and allowing to see the fundus of the eye.
Biomicroscopy of conduct in a dark room, creating a sharp contrast between dark and light of his lamp parts of the eyeball. In the process biomicroscopy used diffuse, direct focal light, indirect lighting (dark field, passing light, sliding beam, research in shiny areas (method mirror margins). The main type of lighting is to direct the focus. When focusing the light on the cornea is obtained optical slice it in the form of slightly opal convexo-concave prism (Fig. 2). Well stand out front and rear surface, the actual substance of the cornea. If cornea inflammation focus or fading study of optical slice allows you to decide where is a pathological focus as deeply affected tissue of the cornea; when a foreign body in the cornea - whether it is in corneal tissue or partially prominium in the cavity of the eye that allows the doctor to properly determine the method of intervention.
When focusing the light on the lens is cut out optical slice it in the form biconvex transparent bodies. In the cut sharply with the surface of the lens, and grayish oval band, the so-called zone section, due to different matter density lenses (Fig. 3). The study of optical slice of the lens allows you to see and to precisely localize beginning of turbidity of its matter, which is of great importance for the early diagnosis of cataracts. Focusing of light in the fundus allows you to explore in the optical slice nervous tunic and optic disc (Fig. 4). It is important for early diagnosis of optic neuritis, congestive nipple, centrally located breaks the retina.
Smaller diagnostic opportunities biomicroscopy of translucent and opaque layers of the eyeball, for example, conjunctiva, iris. However, in this case Century is an important complement to other methods of patient examination with eye illness.

Fig. 1. Slit lamp SL-56: 1 - facial platform; g - illuminator; 3 - binocular microscope; 4 - of coordinate table; 5 - instrumental
Fig. 2. Optical slice of the cornea: a, b, e, g is the front surface of the cornea; 3, e - edge of the rear surface; b, d, g, e is the thickness of the cornea.
Fig. 3. Optical slice of the lens: 1 - Central period; 2 - Central surface embryonic kernel; 3 - peripheral surface embryonic core; 4 - surface senile kernel; 5 - podepsani zone splitting; 6 - front and back surface of the lens. Fig. 4. Optical slice of the retina and optic nerve head.