Bionics

Bionics is the science of the living nature with the purpose of use of the received knowledge in practical activities. Problems of bionics: the study of the regularities of the structure and function of individual parts of living organisms (nervous system, analyzers, wings, skin) to create on this basis a new type of computing machines, radar, aircraft, swimming vehicles and so on; study of bioenergy to create efficient engines, like a muscle; the study of processes of synthesis of substances with the purpose of development of the relevant branches of chemistry. Bionics is closely linked with technical support (electronics, communications, marine and other) and natural Sciences (chemistry, biology, medicine) disciplines, and Cybernetics (see).

Bionics". bionics, from bion - living being, the body; GK. Bioo - live)- the science that studies living nature with the purpose of use of the received knowledge in practical activities.
The term bionics first appeared in 1960, when the specialists of different profiles, gathered at the Symposium in Dayton (USA), put forward the slogan: "Living prototypes - key to the new technology". Bionics is a sort of bridge linking biology, mathematics, physics, chemistry and technology. One important goal of the bio - set analogy between physical-chemical and informational processes, occurring in the technique, and relevant processes in living nature. Specialist-bionics attracts all the variety of "ideas", produced living nature for many millions of years of evolution. A special place among the objectives of bionics is occupied by development and design of control and communication systems on the basis of knowledge of biology. This is bionics in the narrow sense of the word. Bionics is important for Cybernetics, radio electronics, Aeronautics, biology, medicine, chemistry, materials science, engineering and architecture, etc. To the problems of bionics also include the development of biological methods of mining, production technology complex of organic chemistry, building materials and coatings that uses living nature. Bionics teaches art rational copy of wildlife, obtaining of technical specifications expedient use of biological objects, processes and phenomena.
One possible way is functional (mathematical, or software) modeling, which consists in the study of the structural scheme of the process, function, object, numerical characteristics of these functions, their appointment and changes over time. This approach enables to study the interesting process of mathematical tools, and technical implementation of the model to perform when in principle established its effectiveness and left to check economic, energy and other opportunities of constructing such models available technical means. There is another way - physical-chemical modeling, when a specialist in the field of bionics is studying biochemical and biophysical processes with the aim of studying the principles of transformation (including decomposition and synthesis of substances occurring in a living organism. This way is more than just adjacent to the chemical-technological problems and opportunities in the development of energy and chemistry of polymers. The third approach, developed by bionics,is the direct use of living systems and the biological mechanisms in technical systems. This approach is called by the method of inverse modelling, as in this case, the specialist-bionic seeking opportunities and conditions for the adaptation of living systems to solve purely engineering tasks, in other words, attempts to model the biological object, a technical device or process. In response to requests practice, B. was the beginning of studies based on application of biological knowledge in all fields of technology. Its main result is the establishment of the first ways for increasing the technical development of biology.