Biopsy

A biopsy is the excision of a piece of tissue or an organ from a living organism for macro - or microscopic examination with the purpose of existence and the nature of the pathological process. Biopsy to diagnose called diagnostic. In surgical removal of tissue or organ with the medical purpose (appendectomy, resection of the stomach and others) produced a study dissected material for specification of the diagnosis - the so-called therapeutic biopsy.
A biopsy is one of the exact methods of diagnostics to confirm or reject the clinical diagnosis, the nature of the pathological process, the margins that helps to choose the right method of treatment. Especially important biopsy in detecting tumors, tuberculosis, diseases of the blood system.
In addition to the excision of the pieces, a biopsy may be performed by scraping of tissue (surface biopsy) knife or trowel applied scraping on the glass, then fixing and staining according to the rules of histological techniques. Especially often explore the scrapings of the mucous membrane of the uterus that take a curette.
Widespread needle, or aspiration biopsy made with help of punctures authorities trocar or thick needle from the syringe with the subsequent namasivayam in him particles fabric. Puncture biopsy is used for the study of liver, bone marrow (puncture of the sternum and others), lymph nodes, spleen, kidneys, prostate cancer and cancer of various organs (including the brain), as well as to explore the content of the trachea and bronchi, stomach. At the same time explore the sputum with her particles lung tissue, mucous membranes, or tumors, similar to investigate particles of tissue found in the contents of the stomach. A biopsy can be performed using ezofagoskopia, called a bronchoscope, the cystoscope, urethroscopy, gastroscope. Extracted from the bodies of the pieces of damaged mucous membrane is subjected histological and cytological study for diagnostic purposes.
Biopsy produce operating in compliance with all rules of asepsis. Received the biopsy material immediately placed in a fixative (typically 5-10% water solution of formalin) and together with the accompanying form will be delivered to the laboratory maternity hospitals. It is unacceptable to leave a piece istechenii tissue without committing to prevent it from drying. The form shall indicate the surname, name, patronymic of the patient, the number of history, Department of medical institutions, clinical diagnosis, brief clinical data of ignorance about what material is aimed at the study.
For processing of samples taken at autopsy Department of applied freezing pieces or their conclusion in celloidin (or paraffin) dehydrated in alcohol solutions; also process the material, obtained by puncture biopsy. Then on the microtome do thin slices of fabrics, paint them with special dyes (see Histological techniquesand produce histological specimens for microscopic examination. The survey results are recorded in a special log that remain in the facility in perpetuity. Retrieved from maternity hospitals opinions on biopsy glue to the history of the disease.
If necessary, resort to urgent or Express biopsy performed during the surgery. The removed material is fixed in heated in the spirit lamp for 3-4 minutes 5-10% formalin solution; slices prepared on freezing microtome. Conclusions on such a biopsy must be given within 10-20 minutes
Minimum shelf life of oncological material, pieces of fabric, on the basis of which diagnosed a particular process is 3-5 years. Histological specimens stored in special cabinets indefinitely.

Biopsy (from the Greek. bios - life, opsis - visual perception, consideration) - excision of any tissue of a living organism, followed morphological study of the dissected material in order to determine the nature of the pathological process (diagnostic biopsy). In a wider sense, almost any surgery for the removal of tissue, part or the whole body is a biopsy (medical biopsy)as the deleted material must be subjected to a morphological study, even if this operation is pursued not diagnostic, and treatment purposes. Experience has shown the necessity of strict observance of this provision; a deviation from it even if operations such as appendectomy, tonsillectomy, can sometimes lead to fatal errors (detection of cancer of the vermiform process with clinical diagnosis of appendicitis, retikulosarkoma tonsils removed about "chronic tonsillitis", cancer thyroid node, remote about the "Struma", and so on).
Morphological study of materials treatment biopsy allows not only to verify the clinical diagnosis, but also to set the margins, which is important for the forecast. Diagnostic biopsy allow accurate diagnosis, determine the morphological features and histogenesis of the process, which is essential when choosing a method of treatment. This applies particularly to identify tumors, chemotherapy and radiation therapy are accurate characterization of patterns is essential.
Morphological study produced in pathoanatomical branch Leche. institutions; the biopsy material in a fixed or fresh shortly after its withdrawal delivered together with the accompanying forms in the prescribed form. To facilitate histological diagnosis is very important to specify in the form of basic data from the case history. Sometimes the conclusion and histological (resp. cytological) diagnosis are tentative and need either a repeat biopsy (if possible), or monitoring the clinical course of the disease. The research results are entered in a special journal, regardless of what character wore a biopsy,diagnostic or therapeutic.
The log records of the results of the biopsy remain in the facility in perpetuity. The retention of samples taken neregulamentara. However prozektoriu experience puts forward in this regard, the following recommendations. Vermiform process, the particles of the hernia bags, pieces of tissue or organs from non-specific inflammatory processes, scrapings of the mucous membrane of the uterus with the picture of abortion remain until the end of the calendar year, but not less than three months, if no special indications for longer storage. Minimum shelf life of oncological material particles of tissue with a diagnosis of one or another specific process (tuberculosis, actinomycosis, syphilis, chlamydia)- 3-5 years. Studied histological and cytological preparations remain in the archive indefinitely.